There are some examples of flat earth cosmologies from the ancient world, but they always consisted of a flat, round earth. A circle was considered a much more perfect shape than a square, so none of the ancient flat earth cosmologies involve a square earth. If a square flat earth were the cosmology of the bible, then it would have been at odds with every other ancient flat earth cosmology. Therefore, this attempt by the skeptics to claim that the bible teaches a flat earth does not square (pun intended) with the facts of history. If the verses that mention the earths four corners do not refer to a flat earth, then to what do they refer? Let me begin with revelation 7:1, which speaks of four angels standing on the four corners of the earth and restraining the four winds of the earth. Even the most ardent hazlitt students of hyper-literal interpretation of the bible acknowledge the frequent poetic elements and the use of imagery in the book of revelation.
We shall find that promoters of the flat earth do not handle them any better than they handle history. Does the bible teach that the earth has an Edge? Nearly everyone understands that a sphere does not have an edge. Indeed, we can travel indefinitely around a sphere and never reach a boundary or edge. On the other hand, if the earth is flat, it must have an edge somewhere, unless the earth is an infinite plane. However, few people today suggest the latter, and no one in the ancient world did. Bible skeptics are fond of pointing out that the phrase four corners of the earth appears three times in the bible. Surely, the skeptics claim, this must refer to a flat, square earth—thus proving that the bible teaches resume a flat earth. At the very least, they reason, this shows that the bible writers believed one of the flat earth cosmologies of the ancient world, thus proving that the bible is not inspired, but that the people who wrote the bible merely reflected the worldview of their.
Much of the work supporting a flat earth today uncritically repeats and builds upon this false view. The flat earth movement began in the mid-nineteenth century, the same time that the conflict thesis was being developed. While the skeptics were ridiculing the bible for allegedly teaching that the earth is flat, early flat-earthers foolishly accepted this false claim. Undoubtedly, the recent surge of interest in the flat earth among Christians has been fueled by the (false) belief that the bible teaches that the earth is flat. Those who have enlisted in the flat-earth movement of late apparently are ignorant of the fact that those who promoted the conflict thesis made the same arguments to discredit the bible. This could be ironic, or perhaps it is not. It is possible that certain people promoting the flat-earth today are doing so to discredit the bible and Christianity all over again. If so, then Christians who have been misled into believing that the earth is flat have foolishly fallen into the trap. Let us examine the Scriptures to see what they say.
World, after All - the new York times
Finally, according to the story, columbus managed to complete a voyage to the new World, and when he returned to europe, people realized that Columbus was right—the world was round and not flat. How did bandhan sailing from Europe to the caribbean and back to europe prove that the world was spherical? The truth is that no wallpaper one told Columbus he could not reach the far East by sailing west. Everyone knew that it was possible, because everyone knew that the earth was spherical. The problem was that the earth was very large.
Most people understood that the distance westward from Europe to the far East was far greater than going eastward (a look at any globe proves this). The question was not how possible it was to reach Asia by going westward, but rather how feasible it was. The belief was that the ocean between Europe and Asia was vast, with little or no land in between. At the time of Columbus, voyages over open water were very risky, and ships rarely sailed more than three days out of the sight of land. A voyage westward across the ocean to Asia would have required months, with no opportunity for resupply or rescue along the way if problems developed. The facts of history refute the commonly held story about Christopher Columbus.
The works of Aristotle, eratosthenes, and Ptolemy were all widely available and discussed in the late medieval period, and continued to be through the transition to the renaissance. Given the clear record of history, why is it so commonly believed today that most people, and especially the church, thought that the earth was flat? This misconception is easily traced to the writings of two late nineteenth-century skeptics, john William Draper and Andrew Dickson White, who invented the conflict thesis. The conflict thesis holds that religion in general, and Christianity in particular, held back progress. The contention of the conflict thesis was that medieval Europe was gripped with superstition (Christianity) that prevented intellectual advancement, and it was only after mans reason reasserted itself during the renaissance that man slowly became unshackled from religious dogma, bringing about the Enlightenment. It is true that four centuries ago the roman Catholic Church opposed Galileos teaching of the heliocentric theory.
According to the conflict thesis, it was the alleged geocentric teaching of the bible that caused the roman Catholic Church to oppose galileo. However, the historical record demonstrates that it was the teachings of Aristotle and Ptolemy that played the major role in that conflict. 2, that is, the galileo affair was a battle between two scientific theories —geocentrism and heliocentrism—with the bible playing a very minor role. Hence, the conflict thesis reinterpreted the galileo affair into something that it was not. The promoters of the conflict thesis also retold the story of Christopher Columbus. Most people today persist in the belief that at the time of Columbus, nearly everyone thought that the earth was flat. According to the story, columbus was one of the few people who thought the earth was spherical, and he understood that on a spherical earth one could sail westward from Europe to reach India and China. Supposedly, columbus had to argue against strong objections coming from those who thought that the earth was flat to get support for his expedition.
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But before doing so, i must respond to two false assumptions mentioned above—that the church historically taught that the earth is flat and that this changed 500 years ago. As the medieval scholar geoffrey burton Russell ably demonstrated, 1 contrary to common misconception, the medieval church did not teach that the earth was flat. Thomas Aquinas introduced Aristotelian thought into medieval church teaching. Writing in the fourth century oliver bc, aristotle clearly taught that the earth was spherical. In the early second century bc, eratosthenes accurately measured internet the circumference of the spherical earth. Almagest, from the early second century ad, provided a useful model for calculating the positions of heavenly bodies. While this model was geocentric, it did not promote a flat earth, but instead was based upon a spherical earth.
a free preview, pages 91 to 121 are not shown in this preview. Buy the full Version, you're reading a free preview, pages 125 to 132 are not shown in this preview. Buy the full Version, you're reading a free preview, pages 136 to 175 are not shown in this preview. Buy the full Version. Introduction, as I have previously discussed, belief that the earth is flat has rapidly grown of late, largely through dissemination via countless Internet sites and the influence of social media. Unfortunately, many Christians have fallen prey to this, misled into believing that the bible teaches the earth is flat and that, until five centuries ago, the church likewise taught that the earth is flat. In this article, i will examine many of the biblical passages that supposedly teach that the earth is flat, and I will show that in fact they do not.
New York times op-ed contributor, claims that "When the world is flat, you can innovate without having to emigrate.". But what does he mean by "flat and how did the world get that way? Friedman believes the world is flat in the sense that the competitive playing field between industrial and emerging market countries is leveling; and that individual entrepreneurs as well as companies, both large and small, are becoming part of a large, complex, global supply chain extending. The author suggest that the trigger events for this phenomenon were the collapse of communism, the dot-com bubble (resulting in overinvestment in fiber-optic telecommunications and the subsequent outsourcing of engineers enlisted to fix the perceived Y2K problem. Yet we are only now beginning to feel and understand the full implications of these events. This book is Friedman's account of the great changes taking place in our time, as lightning-swift advances in technology and communications put people all over the world in touch as never before — creating an explosion of wealth in India, china and elsewhere, turning ebay hobbyists. Friedman demystifies this brave new flat world, allowing readers to make sense of the often bewildering scene unfolding before their eyes, and helping them to understand what it all means to countries, companies, communities, and individuals. The world Is Flat is an essential update on globalization, its discontents — and its successes. To restaurant learn more about Friedman and his work, visit: back to top).
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Δ knowledgebase « Resources on Social Response capitalism. Recommended reading by Thomas. Friedman, phase one lasted until 1800, when the world was run by states. Then, between 18, phase two saw the rise of multinational corporations. The third phase of globalization, in place since the year 2000 and essay continuing into the foreseeable future, is distinguished by individuals seeking to take control of their economic destiny. That, in a nutshell, is the thesis. The world Is Flat, first published in 2005. Friedman, a pulitzer Prize-winning author, journalist, and.