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sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly,. . providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision, and. . coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and stakeholders. A leader steps up in times of crisis, and is able to think and act creatively in difficult situations. Unlike management, leadership cannot be taught, although it may be learned and enhanced through coaching or mentoring. Someone with great leadership skills today is Bill Gates who, despite early failures, with continued passion and innovation has driven Microsoft and the software industry to success.

Cohesiveness Cohesiveness may by defined as sticking together. . Groups or teams are cohesive when their participants identify with their membership. . Identification means that the participants feel proud to be members, inform outsiders that they are members, and perceive the purposes and goals that the group or team stands for as their own. Conformity conformity means going along. Group conformity is realized when participants abandon a particular position contrary to other group or team members in favor of a majority view. . This abandonment, called conforming, happens for many reasons including: pressure to compromise, logical or emotional persuasion, coercion, time constraints, personal frustration, or perceiving the futility of continued argument. Define the term leadership. Write a brief note on Contingency Theories of leadership? The individuals who are the leaders in an organization, regarded collectively. The activity of leading a group of people or an organization or the ability to do this. establishing a clear vision,. .

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Al., 1991) argues that reinforcement conditions human behavior. According to mattress this theory, behavior is a function of its consequences. Behavior is environmentally caused. It can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. What are the factors that affect group behaviour? Factors Affecting Groups and teams Many factors can affect how well groups and teams perform. . Among these are the cohesiveness of the group, the degree to which individual members conform to group standards, the roles and norms the group agrees to adopt and function by, the level and intensity of competition and conflict, and - finally the style and competence.

smu mba assignments

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Vigilance: Suspicious versus trusting. Warmth: Outgoing versus reserved Cattell also developed an assessment based on these 16 personality factors. The test is known as the 16 pf personality questionnaire and is still frequently used erg theory Alderfer (1972) classifies needs into three categories into hierarchical order. They are: The existence category relatedness category Growth category a comparison of Maslow, Alderfer and HertzbergMcClellands Theory of needs McClellands (1961) theory focuses on three needs: achievement, power, and affiliation. Cognitive evaluation Theory This theory proposes (Deci ryan, 1985) that when extrinsic rewards are used by organizations as payoffs for superior performance, the intrinsic rewards, which are derived from individuals doing what they like, are reduced. Goal-Setting Theory locke and Latham (1990) proposed that challenging goals produce a higher level of output than do the generalized goals. More restaurant difficult the goal, the higher the level of performance will. People will do better when they get reinforcement Theory reinforcement theory (Komaki.

Openness to Change: Flexible versus attached to the familiar. Perfectionism: Controlled versus undisciplined. Privateness: Discreet versus open. Reasoning: Abstract versus concrete. Rule consciousness: Conforming versus non-conforming. Self-Reliance: Self-sufficient versus depende. Sensitivity: Tender-hearted versus tough-minded. Social Boldness: Uninhibited versus shy. Tension: Impatient versus relaxed.

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smu mba assignments

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For example, psychologist Gordon All port identified more than 4,000 papers words in the English language that could be used to describe personality traits. Later, Raymond Cattell analyzed this list and whittled it down to 171 characteristics, mostly by eliminated terms that were redundant or uncommon. He was then able to use a statistical technique known as factor analysis to identify traits that are related to one another. By doing this, he was able to reduce his list to 16 key personality factors. According to cattell, there is a continuum of personality traits. In other words, each person contains all of these 16 traits to a certain degree, but they might be high in some traits and low in others.

The following personality trait list describes some of the descriptive terms used for each of the 16 personality dimensions described by cattell. Abstractedness: Imaginative versus practical. Apprehension: Worried versus confident. Dominance: Forceful versus submissive. Emotional Stability: Calm versus high strung. Liveliness: Spontaneous versus restrained.

Fitting the control system to the organizational culture: Systems that fit within the organizational culture are deemed to do best. Achieving economy of controls: Control techniques are most effective when they achieve maximum output at minimum cost. Establishing controls that lead to corrective action: Controls are useful only if they can correct plans through better planning, organization, staffing and leadership. Define the term personality. As understanding personality is crucial for knowing behavior of an individual in an organization, we will discuss in this.

Section of the unit the interface between personality and organization. Personality refers to some qualities, characteristics skills and competencies of individuals along with certain other. Traits like grooming and attitude. Personality means very specific patterns. Of behavior of an individual in a defined Situation. But there are certain uniform characteristics which always emerge in A person on the basis of which certain inferences can be drawn. Describe cattells Personality factor Model. According to trait theory, human personality is composed of a number of broad traits or dispositions. Early theories attempted to describe every possible trait.

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Tailoring controls to plans and positions: advantages Control techniques should reflect the plans they follow, and reflect the place in the organization where responsibility for action lies. This enables managers to take action when controls differ from their plans. Tailoring controls to individual managers: When controls are tailored to individual managers, individual managers carry out their functions of control more effectively. The system of control shouldn't be will too ambiguous to people who will utilize. Making sure the control point up expectations at critical points: Controls that point out exceptions help managers detect areas that require attention. Its is best to look for exceptions at critical points, and the exception principle should be accompanied by principle of critical point control. Seeking objectivity of controls: An objective, accuracy, and suitable standards are required for effective control technique. Ensuring flexibility of controls: Controls should remain in place despite unexpected plans, unforeseen circumstances, or outright failures.

smu mba assignments

Define the term controlling. What are the pre-requisites of effective control? Answer, define the term controlling. Controllers design and accompany the management process of defining goals, planning and controlling and thus have a joint responsibility to reach the objectives. This means: Controllers ensure the transparency of business results, finance, processes and strategy and thus contribute to higher economic effectiveness. Controllers co-ordinate secondary goals and the related plans in a holistic way and organize review a reporting-system which is future-oriented and covers the enterprise as a whole. Controllers moderate and design the controlling process of defining goals, planning and management control so that every decision maker can act in accordance with agreed objectives. Controllers provide managers with all necessary company management data and information. Controllers develop and maintain controlling systems.

of control will be smaller. Capability of workers, if workers are highly capable, need little supervision, and can be left on their own,. G.: Theory  2Y type of people, they need not be supervised much as they are motivated and take initiative to work; as such the span of control will be wider. Capability of boss, an experienced boss with good understanding of the tasks, good knowledge of the workers and good relationships with the workers, will be able to supervise more workers. Value-add of the boss, a boss that is adding value by training and developing new skills in the workers will need a narrow span of control than one who is focused only on performance management (this is the reverse of the capability of workers point. Similarity of task, if the tasks that the subordinates are performing are similar, then the span of control can be wider, as the manager can supervise them all at the same time. Volume of other tasks, if the boss has other responsibilities, such as membership of committees, involvement in other projects, liaising. . with stakeholders, the number of direct reports will need to be smaller. . Required administrative tasks, if the boss is required to have regular face to face meetings, complete appraisal and development plans, discuss remuneration benefits, write job descriptions and employment contracts, explain employment policy changes and other administrative tasks then the span of control is reduced.

In this case, if a manager has fewer reports than the ideal, they may feel he or she is not being effectively used, while handling more they may feel that the manager is over-stretched and the reports will not receive oliver enough direction. Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Narrow would therefore be 3-5, for example an infantry fire team (3). Wide would be 7-9 as in some business teams. With physical work as opposed to abstract work, such as shop floor work in a factory, span can sometimes be increased to as much as 30 without a productivity loss because outputs are predetermined. Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the. Complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Narrow Span Of Control determine as maximum coordination with subordinates. Or we can say a great deal of time spent with subordinates.

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For More Free assignments go to m or go to, t by :sir. MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior.What do you mean by Span of Control? Differentiate between narrow span pdf of control and wide span of control. Describe the factors that influence the span of control. Answer: What Is Span Of Control? Span of control :-It is simply the number of staff that report to a manager. Some companies also have an ideal span of control, which is the number of reports they feel a manager can effectively manage.

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