Mizo essay

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The subjects of the poems tended to be communal rather than personal. Characters were often presented not as individuals but as social types. 7 Chhayavaadi yug edit In the 20th century, hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as Chhayavaad ( shadowism ) and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chhayavaadi. Jaishankar Prasad, suryakant Tripathi 'nirala', mahadevi varma and Sumitranandan Pant, are the four major Chhayavaadi poets. Poet Ramdhari singh 'dinkar' was another great poet with some Chayavaadi element in his poetry although he wrote in other genres as well.

He encouraged poetry methodology in Hindi dedicated to nationalism and social reform. 7 Dwivedi became the editor of Saraswati in 1903, the first Hindi monthly magazine of India, which was established in 1900. 8 he used it to crusade for reforms in the hindi literature. One of the most prominent poems of the period was maithili Sharan Gupt 's Bharat-bharati, which evokes the past glory of India. Shridhar Prathak 's Bharatgit is another renowned poem of the period. 7 Some scholars have labelled much of the poetry of this period as "versified propaganda". According to lucy rosenstein: "It is verse of public statement; its language is functional but aesthetically unappealing. Earnestly concerned with social issues and moral values, it is puritanical poetry in which aesthetic considerations are secondary. Imagination, originality, poetic sensibility and expression are wanting, the metre is restrictive, the idiom clumsy." She adds, however, that the period was important for laying the foundations to the modern Hindi poetry and that it did reflect sensitivity to social issues of the time. However, she also adds that the inelegance is a typical feature of a "young" poetry, as she considers Modern Hindi. 7 Without a poetic tradition in modern Hindi, poets often modeled their forms on Braj, and later on Sanskrit, Urdu, bengali and English forms, often ill-suited to hindi.

mizo essay

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Some of these books were Prem Sagar by lallu lal, naasiketopaakhyan by sadal Mishra, sukhsagar by sadasukhlal of Delhi and Rani ketaki ki kahani by munshi Inshallah Khan. A depiction of Surya in an 1884 book, indrajalakala (The Art of Magic Jwala Prakash Press, meerut The person who brought realism in the hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand, who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and. Before Premchand, the hindi literature revolved around fairy or add magical tales, entertaining stories and religious themes. Premchand's novels have been translated into many other languages. Gocharya ji authored Krishna cahrit Manas in the poetic form describing about the full life of Lord Krishna (from birth to nirvana ). Dwivedi yug edit The Dwivedi yug Age of Dwivedi in Hindi literature lasted from 1900 to 1918. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who played a major role in establishing the modern Hindi language in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of the hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love.

mizo essay

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Both books came out in 1795. Munshi lallu lal 's Hindi translation of Sanskrit Hitopadesha was published in 1809. Lala Srinivas Das published a novel in Hindi pariksha guru in the nāgarī script in 1886. 5 Shardha ram Phillauri wrote a hindi novel Bhagyawati which was published in 1888. Chandrakanta, written by devaki nandan Khatri in 1888, is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi. 6 The person who brought realism in the hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand, who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement. 1900 onwards) edit In 1800, the British East India company established Fort William College at Calcutta. The college president. Gilchrist hired professors to write books in Hindustani.

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mizo essay

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The saguna school was represented by mainly vaishnava poets like surdas, tulsidas and others and was a logical extension of the dvaita and Vishishta Advaita Philosophy propounded by the likes of Madhavacharya etc. This school was chiefly vaishnava in orientation as in seen in the main compositions like ramacharitamanas, sur Saravali, sur Sagar extoling Rama and Krishna. This was also the age of tremendous integration between the hindu and the Islamic elements in the Arts with the advent of many muslim Bhakti poets like abdul Rahim Khan-i-khana who was a court poet to mughal emperor Akbar and was a great devotee. The nirgun School of Bhakti poetry was also tremendously secular in nature and its propounders like kabir and Guru nanak red had a large number essay of followers irrespective of caste or religion. 1700 to 1900) edit In the ritikavya or Ritismagra kavya period, the erotic element became predominant in the hindi literature. This era is called Riti (meaning 'procedure because it was the age when poetic figures and theory were developed to the fullest. But this emphasis on poetry theory greatly reduced the emotional aspects of poetry—the main characteristic of the Bhakti movement—and the actual content of the poetry became less important.

The saguna School of the Bhakti yug split into two schools (Rama bhakti and Krishna bhakti) somewhere in the interregnum of the Bhakti and the reeti Eras. Although most reeti works were outwordly related to Krishna Bhakti, their emphasis had changed from total devotion to the supreme being to the Shringar or erotic aspects of Krishna's life—his leela, his pranks with the gopis in Braj, and the description of the physical beauty. The poetry of Bihari, and Ghananand Das fit this bill. The most well known book from this age is the bihari satsai of Bihari, a collection of Dohas (couplets dealing with Bhakti (devotion neeti (Moral policies) and Shringar (love). The first Hindi books, using the devanagari script or Nāgarī script were one heera lal's treatise on Ain-i-akbari, called Ain e akbari ki bhasha vachanika, and Rewa Mharaja's treatise on Kabir.

Avadhi and Brij Bhasha were the dialects in which literature was developed. The main works in avadhi are malik muhammad jayasi 's Padmavat and Tulsidas 's Ramacharitamanas. The major works in Braj dialect are tulsidas 's Vinaya patrika and Surdas 's Sur Sagar. Sadhukaddi was also a language commonly used, especially by kabir in his poetry and dohas. 4 The Bhakti period also marked great theoretical development in poetry forms chiefly from a mixture of older forms of poetry.


These included Verse patterns like doha (two-liners sortha, chaupaya (four-liners) etc. This was also the age when poetry was characterised under the various Rasas. Unlike the Adi kaal (also called the vir Gatha kaal ) which was characterised by an overdose of poetry in the vir Rasa (Heroic poetry the Bhakti yug marked a much more diverse and vibrant form of poetry which spanned the whole gamut of rasas. Bhakti poetry had two schools the nirguna school (the believers of a formless God or an abstract name) and the saguna school (the believers of a god with attributes and worshippers of Vishnu's incarnations). Kabir and Guru nanak belong to the nirguna school, and their philosophy was greatly influenced by the Advaita vedanta philosophy of Adi sankaracharya. They believed in the concept of Nirgun Nirakaar Bramh or the Shapeless Formless One.

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The first Deccani author was Khwaja bandanawaz gesudaraz muhammad Hasan. He wrote three prose works mirazul Aashkini, hidayatnama and Risala sehwara. His grandson Abdulla hussaini wrote nishatul Ishq. The first Deccani poet was nizami. During the later part of this period and early Bhakti kala, many saint-poets like ramanand and Gorakhnath became famous. The earliest form of Hindi can also be seen in some of Vidyapati 's maithili works. 1375 to advantages 1700) edit The medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and composition of long, epic poems.

mizo essay

Some jain and Rasau (heroic poets) poetry works are also available from this period. In the kindergarten deccan region in south India, dakkhini or Hindavi was used. It flourished under the delhi sultanate and later under the nizams of Hyderabad. It was written in the persian script. Nevertheless, the hindavi literature can be considered as proto-hindi literature. Many deccani experts like sheikh Ashraf or Mulla vajahi used the word Hindavi to describe this dialect. Others such as roustami, nishati etc. Preferred to call it Deccani. Shah Buharnuddin Janam Bijapuri used to call it Hindi.

rather than local dialects. Harsha, the author of naishdhiya charitra, was his court poet. Jagnayak (sometimes Jagnik the royal poet in Mahoba, and Nalha, the royal poet in Ajmer, were the other prominent literary figures in this period. However, after Prithviraj Chauhan's defeat in the second Battle of Tarain, most literary works belonging to this period were destroyed by the army of Muhammad of Ghor. Very few scriptures and manuscripts from this period are available and their genuineness is also doubted. Some siddha and Nathpanthi poetical works belonging to this period are also found, but their genuineness is again, doubted. The siddhas belonged to the vajrayana, a later Buddhist sect. Some scholars argue that the language of Siddha poetry is not an earlier form of Hindi, but Magadhi Prakrit. Nathpanthis were yogis who practised the hatha yoga.

Braj, bundeli, awadhi, kannauji, khariboli, marwari, magahi, bhojpuri and, chhattisgarhi. 1, from the 20th century, works produced. Standard Hindi, a register of, hindustani written in the, devanagari script, are sometimes regarded as the only basis of modern literature mattress in Hindi. 2, contents, history edit. Adi kal or Vir-Gatha kal (c. 1050 to 1375) edit literature of Adi kal (c. Before the 15th century ce) was developed in the regions of Kannauj, delhi, ajmer stretching up to central India. 3 Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem written by Chand Bardai (1149. 1200 is considered as one of the first works in the history of Hindi literature.

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Not to be confused with, hindu literature, the specific literature of the hindu religious the tradition. Hindi literature hindi :, hindi sahitya) includes literature in the various. Central Zone, indo-Aryan languages which have writing systems. It is broadly classified into four prominent forms (styles) based on the date of production. They are: Vir-Gatha kal (poems extolling brave warriors) 11th14th century. Bhakti kal poems (devotional poems) 14th18th century. Riti or Srngar kal poems (poems of romance) 18th20th century. Adhunik kal (modern literature) 20th century onwards. The literature was produced in dialects such.


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