15 The murder took place in the Greyhound public house on High Street, which is now private and called Buckingham house; it bears a commemorative plaque. 45 Most residents, including the mayor, supported the parliamentarians during the English civil War, although its military governor, colonel Goring, supported the royalists. 15 The town became a major base for the parliamentarian navy and was blockaded from the sea. Parliamentarian troops were sent to raid it by land in the siege of Portsmouth ; the guns of southsea castle were fired at the royalist garrison in the town. Across the harbour, parliamentarians in Gosport joined in the assault, with their guns damaging St Thomas's Church. 15 46 On 5 September 1642, the remaining royalists in the garrison at the Square tower were forced to surrender after Goring threatened to blow it up with gunpowder. In return, he and his garrison were allowed safe passage. 46 47 Under the commonwealth of England, robert Blake used the harbour as his base during the first Anglo-dutch War in 1652 and the Anglo Spanish War of 1654.
39 In 1545, from southsea castle, he witnessed his flagship Mary rose sink with the loss of about 500 lives, whilst going into action against the French fleet in japanese the battle of the solent. 40 Some historians believe that the mary rose turned too quickly and submerged her open gun ports, whereas others argue that it sank due to its poor design. Over the years, portsmouth's fortifications were rebuilt and improved by successive monarchs. In 1563, portsmouth suffered from an outbreak of a plague, resulting in about 300 deaths out of the town's population of 2000. 15 Stuart to georgian edit In 1623, Charles I (then Prince of Wales) returned to portsmouth from his travels in France and Spain. Five years later, Charles' unpopular military adviser, george villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, was stabbed to death in an Old Portsmouth pub by war veteran John Felton. 14 Felton never attempted to escape and was caught walking through the streets when soldiers confronted him, to which he responded: "I know that he is dead, for I had the force of forty men when I struck the blow". Felton was then hanged, and his body was chained to a gibbet on southsea common as a warning to others.
Instead, henry gathered a fleet at southampton and invaded the norman coast in August of that year. Recognising the town's growing importance, he ordered a wooden round Tower to be built at the mouth of the harbour, which was completed in 1426. Henry vii rebuilt the fortifications with stone, assisted Robert Brygandine and Sir Reginald Bray in the construction of the world's first dry dock, and raised the Square tower in 1494. During his reign, henry vii made portsmouth a royal Dock, and was England's only dockyard to be considered "national" at the time. Although King Alfred may have used Portsmouth to build ships as early as the 9th century, the first warship recorded as constructed in the town was the Sweepstake, built in the dry dock in 1497. 35 In 1539, henry viii built southsea castle, financed by the dissolution of the monasteries, in anticipation of a french invasion. 37 he also invested large sums of money into the town's dockyard, and expanded its boundaries to 8 acres (3.2 ha). Around this time a tudor defensive boom stretched from the round Tower to fort Blockhouse in Gosport, as a protection to portsmouth Harbour.
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By the following century, commercial interests had grown and its exports included essay wool, corn, grain, and livestock. Edward ii ordered all ports on the south coast to assemble their largest vessels at Portsmouth to carry soldiers and horses to the duchy of Aquitaine in 1324 to strengthen defences. In 1336 a french fleet under the command of david ii of Scotland attacked the English Channel, ransacked the Isle of Wight and threatened the town. Concerned, Edward iii instructed all maritime towns to build vessels and raise troops to rendezvous at Portsmouth. Two years later, a french fleet led by nicholas Béhuchet raided Portsmouth, destroying much of the town.
Only the stone-built church and hospital survived. After the raid, Edward iii exempted the town from national taxes to aid reconstruction. 29 Upon Edward iii's death in 1377, his grandson Richard II was crowned, and the French landed in Portsmouth in the same year. The town was plundered and burnt, but its inhabitants fought back and defeated them, which led the French to retreat and raid towns in the west country instead. A map of Portsmouth in around 1540. Henry v built the first permanent fortifications of Portsmouth. In 1416, a number of French ships blockaded Portsmouth, which housed ships that were set to invade normandy.
The danes were massacred by the survivors the following year and rebuilding began, although the town suffered further attacks until 1066. Norman to tudor edit portsmouth was not mentioned in the domesday survey of 1086, but Bocheland ( Buckland copenore ( Copnor and Frodentone ( Fratton ) were. 14 Some sources maintain it was founded in 1180 by the Anglo-norman merchant jean de gisors. 15 When King Henry ii died in 1189, his son Richard i, who had spent most of his life in France, arrived in Portsmouth before he was crowned in London. When Richard returned from captivity in Austria in may 1194, he summoned a fleet of 100 ships and an army to the port.
He granted the town a royal charter on 2 may, giving permission for an annual fifteen-day free market fair, weekly markets, and a local court to deal with minor matters, and exempted its inhabitants from paying an annual tax. 14 Richard granted the town the arms of Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus, whom he had defeated during the Third Crusade in 1191, reflecting a significant involvement of local soldiers, sailors, and vessels in the holy war. 19 The 800 anniversary was celebrated in 1994 as the city's founding. King John reaffirmed the rights and privileges awarded by richard I and established the permanent naval base. The first docks were built by william of Wrotham beginning in 1212. 14 John summoned his earls, barons, and military advisers to the town to plan an invasion of Normandy. In 1229, after a declaration of war against France, henry iii assembled a force described as "one of the finest armies that had ever been raised in England" by historian lake allen. The invasion stalled and returned from France in October 1231. In 1242 Henry iii summoned troops to invade guienne, and in 1295 Edward I sent supplies for his army in France.
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5 The Anglo-saxon Chronicle has a warrior called Port and his two sons killing a noble Briton in Portsmouth in 501. 6 Winston Churchill, in his a history of the English-Speaking peoples, says that Port was a pirate and he founded Portsmouth in 501. 7 8 The south coast was vulnerable to danish viking invasions during the 8th and 9th centuries. In 787, it was assaulted and conquered by danish pirates, and then during the reign of Æthelwulf, king of Wessex in 838, a danish fleet landed between Portsmouth and southampton and the surrounding area was plundered. In response, æthelwulf sent Wulfherd and the governor of Dorsetshire homework to confront the danes at Portsmouth, where most of their ships were docked. They were successful although Wulfherd was killed. In 1001, the danes returned and pillaged Portsmouth and surrounding locations, threatening the English with extinction.
C., the city's professional football club, play their home games at Fratton Park. The city has several mainline railway stations that connect to london Waterloo amongst other lines in southern England. Portsmouth International Port is a commercial cruise ship and ferry port for international destinations. The port is the second busiest in the United Kingdom after dover, handling around three million passengers a year. The city formerly had its own airport, portsmouth Airport, until its closure in 1973. The University of teal Portsmouth enrols 23,000 students and is ranked among the world's best modern universities. Portsmouth is also the birthplace of author Charles Dickens and engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Contents History edit main article: History of Portsmouth Early history edit The romans built Portus Adurni, a fort, at nearby portchester in the late third century. 4 The city's Old English name "Portesmuða" is derived from port, meaning a haven, and muða, the mouth of a large river or estuary.
to liberate the falkland Islands deployed from the city's naval base. Her Majesty's Yacht Britannia left the city to oversee the transfer of Hong Kong in 1997, which marked for many the end of the empire. Portsmouth is one of the world's best known ports. Hmnb portsmouth is considered to be the home of the royal navy and is home to two-thirds of the uk's surface fleet. The city is home to some famous ships, including hms warrior, the tudor carrack mary rose and Horatio nelson's flagship, hms victory (the world's oldest naval ship still in commission). The former hms vernon naval shore establishment has been redeveloped as a retail park known as Gunwharf quays. Portsmouth is among the few British cities with two cathedrals: the Anglican Cathedral of St Thomas and the roman Catholic Cathedral of St John the evangelist. The waterfront and Portsmouth Harbour are dominated by the Spinnaker Tower, one of the United Kingdom's tallest structures at 560 feet (170 m). Nearby southsea is a seaside resort with a pier amusement park and medieval castle.
The city's history can be traced. A significant naval port for centuries, portsmouth has the world's oldest dry dock and was England's first line of defence during the. French invasion in japanese 1545. Special, palmerston Forts were built in 1859 in anticipation of another invasion from continental Europe. By the early-19th century, portsmouth was the most heavily fortified city in the world, and was considered "the world's greatest naval port" at the height of the. British Empire throughout, pax Britannica. The world's first mass production line was set up in the city, making it the most industrialised site in the world.
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For other uses, see, portsmouth (disambiguation). City unitary authority area in England, United Kingdom. Portsmouth ( /pɔrtsməθ/ ( listen ) is a port city in, hampshire, england, mainly on, portsea island, pdf 70 miles (110 km) south-west. London and 19 miles (31 km) south-east. It has a total population of 205,400. The city forms part of the. South Hampshire built-up area, which also covers southampton and the towns. Havant, waterlooville, eastleigh, fareham, and, gosport.