Dorothea dix essay

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22 That option is normally marked by people that consider themselves multiracial ( mestiço ). The mixed Race day, or Mestizo day (dia do mestiço on 27 June, is official event in States of Amazonas, roraima e paraíba and a holyday in two cities. The term pardo is formally used in the official census but is not used by the population. In Brazilian society, most people who are multiracial call themselves moreno : light- moreno or dark- moreno. These terms are not considered offensive and focus more on skin color than on ethnicity (it is considered more like other human characteristics such as being short or tall). The most common multiracial groups are between African and European ( mulato and Amerindian and European ( caboclo or mameluco ).

Several terms have remained in common usage. Race and racial mixture have played a significant role in the politics of evaluation many latin American countries. In most countries, for example mexico, dominican Republic, and Panama, a majority of the population can be described as biracial or multiracial (depending on the country). In Mexico, over 80 of the population is mestizo in some degree or another. 21 The mexican philosopher and educator José vasconcelos authored an essay on the subject, la raza cósmica, celebrating racial mixture. Venezuelan ex-president Hugo Chávez, himself of Spanish, indigenous and African ancestry, made positive references to the mixed-race ancestry of most Latin Americans from time to time. Colonialism throughout the west Indies has created diverse populations tesla on many islands, including people of multiracial identities. Of note is the mixture of West African communities, most brought to the region as slaves, and East Indian settlers most of whom came as indentured labor after the abolition of slavery. Trinidad and Tobago, guyana and Suriname claim the highest populations of such mixtures, known locally as douglas. In addition to mixed African and Indian heritage, inhabitants of Trinidad and Tobago can also have any combination of Chinese, arab, latino, jewish, amerindian and European heritage. Brazil edit main articles: Pardo Brazilians and Mixed-race Brazilian According to the 2000 official census,.5 of Brazilians identified themselves as pardo skin color.

dorothea dix essay

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This however is changing, although many canadians may now be unaware of their mixed-race heritage, especially those of Métis short descent. Latin America and the caribbean edit main articles: Race and ethnicity in Latin America and Casta see also: Mestizo, pardo, zambo, and Mulatto mestizo is the common word used to describe multiracial people in Latin America, especially people with Native american and Spanish or other. Mestizos make up a large portion of Latin Americans, comprising a majority in many countries. In Latin America, racial mixture was officially acknowledged from colonial times. There was official nomenclature for every conceivable mixture present in the various countries. Initially, this classification was used as a type of caste system, where rights and privileges were accorded depending on one's official racial classification. Official caste distinctions were abolished in many countries of the Spanish -speaking Americas as they became independent of Spain.

dorothea dix essay

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The official mixed-race population grew by 25 since the previous census. Of these, the most frequent combinations were multiple visible minorities (for example, people of mixed black and south Asian heritage form the majority, specifically in Toronto followed closely by white-black, white-Chinese, white-Arab, and many other smaller mixes. 19 During the time of slavery in the United States, a very large but unknown number of African American slaves escaped to canada, where slavery was made illegal in 1834, via the Underground railroad. Many of these people married in with European-Canadian and Native-canadian populations, although their precise numbers, and the numbers of their descendants, are not known. Another.2 of Canadians officially are métis (descendants of a historical population who were partially Aboriginal —also called "Indian" or "Native"—and European, particularly French, english, scottish, and Irish ethnic groups). Although listed as a single "race" in Canada, the métis are therefore multi-racial. In particular the métis population may be far higher than the official numbers state, due to earlier racism causing people to historically hide their mixed heritage.

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dorothea dix essay

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Many states eventually repealed such laws, and a 1967 decision by the us supreme court ( loving. Virginia ) overturned all remaining anti-miscegenation laws in the. The United States is one of the most racially diverse countries in the world. The American people are mostly multi-ethnic descendants of various immigrant nationalities culturally distinct in their former countries. Assimilation and integration took place, unevenly at different periods of history, depending on the American region. The "Americanization" of foreign ethnic groups and the inter-racial diversity love of millions of Americans has been a fundamental part of its history, especially on frontiers where different groups of people came together.

13 The former President of the United States, barack Obama, is a multiracial American, as he is the son of a luo father from Kenya and a european American mother. He acknowledges both parents. His official White house biography describes him as African-American. 14 In Hawai'i, the us state in which he was born, he would be called " hapa which is the hawaiian word for "mixed ethnic heritage". 15 Canada edit see also: Metis people (Canada) Multiracial Canadians in 2006 officially totaled.5 of the population, up from.2 in 2001, although, this number may actually be far higher.

The development of binary thinking about race meant that African Americans, a high proportion of whom have also had European ancestry, were classified as black. Some are now reclaiming additional ancestries. Many Americans today are multi-racial without knowing. According to the census Bureau, as of 2002, over 75 of all African Americans had multiracial ancestries. 9 In 2010, the number of Americans who checked both "black" and "white" on their census forms was 134 percent higher than it had been a decade earlier. 10 According to james.

Allen and Eugene turner from California state University, northridge, by some calculations in the 2000 Census, the multiracial population that is part white is as follows: white/Native american and Alaskan Native : 7,015,017, white/African American: 737,492, white/Asian: 727,197, and white/Native hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. 11 The stigma of a mixed-race heritage, associated with racial discrimination among numerous racial groups, has decreased significantly in the United States. People of mixed-race heritage can identify themselves now in the. Census by any combination of races, whereas before Americans were required to select from only one category. For example, in 2010, they were offered choices of one or more racial categories from the following list: 12 White Black, african. Or Negro American Indian or Alaska native asian Indian Chinese filipino japanese korean vietnamese native hawaiian guamanian or Chamorro samoan Other Asian specify Other Pacific Islander specify some Other Race specify many mixed-raced Americans use the term biracial. Has a growing multiracial identity movement, reflective of a desire by people to claim their full identities. Interracial marriage, most notably between whites and blacks, was historically deemed immoral and illegal in most states in the 18th, 19th and first half of the 20th century, due to its long association of blacks with the slave caste. California and the western us had similar laws to prohibit European-Asian marriages, which was associated with discrimination against Chinese and Japanese on the west coast.

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Citation needed The terms mixed-race, biracial or multiracial are becoming generally accepted. In other languages, translations of miscegenation did not become politically incorrect. Regions with significant multiracial populations edit northern America edit United States edit main article: Multiracial American Further information: Black Indians, homework melungeons, metis people (United States), and Children of the Plantation In the United States, the 2000 census was the first in the history of the. This multiracial option was considered a necessary adaptation to the demographic and cultural changes that the United States has been experiencing. 6 Multiracial Americans officially numbered.1 million in 2006,.0 of the population. 7 8 There is considerable evidence that an accurate number would be much higher. Prior to the mid-20th century, many people hid their multiracial heritage.

dorothea dix essay

5 While the term is socially accepted, it is becoming an outdated due to its association with the apartheid era. In Latin America, where mixtures became tri-racial after the introduction of African slavery, a panoply of terms developed during the colonial period, including terms such as zambo for persons of Amerindian and African descent. Charts and diagrams intended to explain the classifications were common. The well-known Casta paintings in Mexico and, to some extent, peru, were illustrations of the different classifications. At one time, latin American census categories have used such classifications, but in Brazilian censuses since the Imperial times, for example, most persons of multiracial heritage, except the Asian Brazilians of some european descent (or any other to the extent it is not clearly perceptible). The same applies to "negros" or Afro-Brazilians and European or Amerindian ancestors. Most Brazilians of all racial groups (except kites Asian-Brazilians and Natives) are to some extent mixed-race according to genetic research. In English, the terms miscegenation and amalgamation were used for unions between whites, blacks, and other ethnic groups. These terms are now often considered offensive and are becoming obsolete.

race either alone or in combination with one or more other races. 4 Related terms edit In the English-speaking world, many terms for people of various multiracial backgrounds exist, some of which are pejorative or are no longer used. Mulato, zambo and mestizo are used in Spanish, mulato, caboclo, cafuzo, ainoko (from Japanese ) and mestiço in Portuguese and mulâtre and métis in French for people of multiracial descent. These terms are also in certain contexts used in the English-speaking world. In Canada, the métis are a recognized ethnic group of mixed European and First Nation descent, who have status in the law similar to that of First Nations. Terms such as mulatto for people of partially African descent and mestizo for people of partially native american descent are still used by English-speaking people of the western hemisphere, citation needed but mostly when referring to the past or to the demography of Latin America. Half-breed is a historic term that referred to people of partial Native american ancestry; it is now considered pejorative and discouraged from use. Mestee, once widely used, is now used mostly for members of historically mixed-race groups, such as louisiana Creoles, melungeons, redbones, brass Ankles and mayles. In south Africa, and much of English-speaking southern Africa, the term Coloured was used to describe a mixed-race person and also Asians not of African descent.

Other countries where multiracial people make up a sizable portion of the population are the United Kingdom, belgium, france, germany, italy, the netherlands, spain, south Africa, botswana, australia, new zealand, mauritius, and pdf Fiji. Contents Definitions edit While defining race is controversial, 2 race remains a commonly used term for categorization. Insofar as race is defined differently in different cultures, perceptions of multiraciality will naturally be subjective. Sociologist Troy duster and ethicist Pilar Ossorio: Some percentage of people who look white will possess genetic markers indicating that a significant majority of their recent ancestors were African. Some percentage of people who look black will possess genetic markers indicating the majority of their recent ancestors were european. 3 In the United States: Many state and local agencies comply with the. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 1997 revised standards for the collection, tabulation, and presentation of federal data on race and ethnicity. The revised omb standards identify a minimum of five racial categories: White ; Black or African American ; American Indian and Alaska native ; Asian ; and Native hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander.

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"Mixed race" redirects here. For the album by Tricky, see. Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races. 1, many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds. Some of the terms are considered insulting and offensive. Preferred terms mixed-race (or simply "mixed biracial, multiracial, multiethnic, polyethnic, half, half-and-half, métis, creole, mestizo, mulatto, melungeon, criollo, chindian, dougla, quadroon, zambo, eurasian, hapa, hāfu, garifuna and pardo. Individuals of multiracial backgrounds make up a significant portion of the population in many parts of the world. In North America, studies you have found that the multiracial population is continuing to grow. In many countries of Latin America and the caribbean, people with multiracial backgrounds make up the majority of the population.

dorothea dix essay
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People, men and women equally, have knowledge about themselves and the world around them that transcends or goes beyond what they can see, hear, taste, touch or feel. Nursing, history - how, nursing, has Changed and Grown: Nursing has evolved into a modern profession from its beginnings in early civilization.

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  1. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds. Some of the terms are considered insulting and offensive. Preferred terms mixed-race (or simply mixed biracial, multiracial, multiethnic, polyethnic, half, half-and-half, m tis, creole, mestizo. Transcendentalism is a very formal word that describes a very simple idea.

  2. At the start of the civil War, there were no organizations of trained nurses in the United States. republican Motherhood is an 18th-century term for an attitude toward women's roles present in the emerging United States before, during, and after the American revolution. Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.

  3. Nursing in the civil War by stanley. Editors Note: This essay series is written by mercy Street's medical, historical and technical advisor, Stanley. Burns, md of The burns Archive.

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