Dissertation syllabus

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So when we can decide the most appropriate forms for each type of communication, we can establish the syllabus. Although Hedge (2000) claims that structural syllabuses are amendable to planning, provide systematicity and make learners feel secure, the symbol of the each learning unit is semantic basically (Wilkins, 1976). Nunan (1988) asserts that an alternative to the grammatically-oriented textbook may not solve all of the problems in language teaching. These lists of functions and notions do not reflect the way languages are learned. Dividing language into discrete units of functions may misrepresent the nature of language as communication (Widdowson, 1978; Nunan, 1988). Therefore, the structural syllabuses coverage with notional-functional ones, they are both product-based, synthetic syllabuses. In short, the semantic needs of learners decide the planning of the linguistic content. Above all, it is ensure that this type of syllabus has some weaknesses as follows: The first problem is that language functions alone are not a satisfactory organizing principle.

According to wilkins (1973,1976 eight types of communicative functions are recognized, that is, eight kinds of things learners can do with resume language, such as: Modality (to express degrees of certainty, necessity, conviction, obligation, and tolerance). Moral discipline and evaluation (judgment, approval, disapproval). Suasion (persuasion, recommendation, predictions argument (information asserted or sought, agreement, denial, concession). Rational inquiry and exposition (author's note: similar in sub-categories to argument and evaluation). Personal emotions (positive and negative emotional relations (greeting, flattery, hostilityâ interpersonal relations (politeness and status: degree of formality and informality). In a word, the functions of language, the very cores of the functional-notional syllabus, are fairly generalizing. 2.2 The weaknesses of the functional-notional syllabus. Every syllabus has its demerits, so does the functional-notional syllabus. When putting it into practice, we will find that it presents some problems. What could make learners be able to communicate best in the foreign language decide the process of what to teach (Wilkins, 1976).

dissertation syllabus

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This syllabus is extremely useful for esp clauses in which the learners can learn part of the language which they are badly in need without wasting their time and energy for detailed study of the whole language system. The second merit of this syllabus is that the act of communication, even at the elementary levels, will be intrinsically motivating. Unlike the grammatical syllabus which separates mattress the language into discrete items and from which the learners have to communicative competence at the very beginning. The language forms, its functions, and communicative skills they have learned can be used immediately in the communicative activities and in role plays, or even in the real world. This direct effect of language use motivates the learners. They feel quite satisfied and are eager to learn as much as possible according to their needs because they are not passive listeners but active participants. The third merit is that language functions are quite generalizing.

dissertation syllabus

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Language functions in a real-life setting would generate a special kind of excitement for learning and leads to productive learning. Therefore, as comparing to the structural syllabus where elements of language are learned in an isolated way from real life, students' communicative competence and confidence can be well developed, and teachers can revitalize teaching materials to meet learning objectives in functional-notional approach study. Furthermore, the functional-notional syllabus is superior to the situational syllabus because it can include both of the most important grammatical forms and all kinds of language functions in it rather than concentrate those exist in specific situations typically (Wilkins, 1976). From above it can say that this type of syllabus does have some significant merits as follows: The first merit of the functional-notional syllabus is that it emphasizes the fact that students and their communicative purposes are at the very core of the teaching program. The learner's actual and foreseeable academic, social, and vocational needs will underlie all aspects of the programs of linguistic and cultural content. While due attention is given to certain aspects of selection and grading of linguistic cultural content, the primary consideration is those functions that persons of a particular age level, in a particular situation, would wish or need to express. Thus, it suits the need of learners'.

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dissertation syllabus

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Neither grammatical nor situational syllabus would be denied that the purpose of learning languages is to communicate both of them give learners few adequate opportunities to promote the communicative capacity. However, the notional-functional syllabus takes the desired communicative capacity as the starting-point. From essay the notional-functional syllabus, it asks speakers to communicate through language. So the designers are able to organize language and teaching in concerning of the content rather than the form of the language (Wilkins, 1976). 2.1 The strengths of the notional-functional syllabus.

The advantages of the notional syllabus include that it could consider the communicative facts of language from the beginning with concerning of grammatical and situational factors. So it is superior to the grammatical syllabus possibly (Wilkins, 1976). In the grammatical syllabus language elements are demonstrated more in complete possibilities of the language than the use of it needed in conversation. So learners would complain that foreign language learning is not practical and they have few opportunities to use out. However, a functional-notional syllabus would teach language to use it rather than instructing the use of its exclusive forms. As teaching the language through its uses, learners would consider the utility and the relevance of their study (Wilkins, 1976).Moreover, harlow and Linda. (1978) point that by perceiving language as a real means of communication; learners would feel more motivated to learn as they would feel what they were learning is useful.

Moreover, the goal of learning language is communicative and not formal perfection in the learner. Language is seen as essentially a function of society, serving an interpersonal role, and making each speaker a member of a speech community through its use. Meanwhile, the grammatical syllabus teaches the language for learners by taking them progressively through the structures of the target language; the situational syllabus does so through recreating the situations in which native speakers use the language (Wilkins, 1976).Wilkins (1976) also points that the combination. Since the learning of a language is most commonly identified with acquiring digestion of its grammatical system, it is not surprising that most courses have grammatical pedagogic organization. And courses are based on the systematic introduction of vocabulary and others which take language situations as the starting-point. Therefore, the functional-notional syllabus is not necessarily mutually exclusive.

Regarding them form the linguistic point of view, richards (2001) asserts that the notional-functional syllabus not only be considered with an analytic approach for language learning but also was combined with restating of traditional structural grammar rules as functions. From above, richards and Rodgers (2001) asserts that one of the first syllabus models to be proposed for communicative teaching was described as a notional syllabus and the progenitor of the notional syllabuses himself. And Wilkins (1981) highlights that the communicative purposes of language learning link the notional approach to the wider communicative movement in language teaching. Therefore, the notional-functional syllabus was one answer to the question of what kind of course content should be used to lead learners acquire the ability to convey communicative meaning through language. The strengths and weaknesses of the notional-functional syllabus. The notional-functional syllabus concerns two important elements: one is a notional or conceptual view, which is involved with some concepts such as time, space, movement, cause and effect; another one is functional view which is used for intentional or purposive description and classification. It is a new type of syllabus because it could take notional-functional categories as an organizing principle which would not only be determined by grammatical considerations but also be concerned with communicative categories into account as well (White, 1988). All of the grammatical syllabus, the situational syllabus, and notional-functional syllabus belong to 'type a syllabuses'.

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Halliday (1970) argues that since all the functions of language are usage of studied language, linguistic is considered with the description of speech acts or texts, therefore all components of meaning have been brought into focus of the notional-functional syllabus. Above all, it can say that how the notional-functional syllabus's focus on the meanings and dream functions of language was strongly influenced by functional and communicative views of language. 1.2 The theories of language learning/acquisition. Richard and Rodgers (2001) also distinguish between two basic types of learning theories: process-oriented theories which "build on learning processes, such as habit formation, induction, inference, hypothesis testing, and generalization" and condition-oriented theories, which "emphasize the nature of the human and physical context in which. Although it is true that teaching notions and functions must be with using behaviorist techniques. And Widdowson wood (1990) notes that teachers were "not bound to interpret the syllabus in line with its intentions". In practically, there came to be a strong alliance between the functional view of language represented by the notional-functional syllabus, and a condition-oriented, communicative approach to learning. As Wilkins (1976) points that the meaning must be considered through the study of language in use, language in discourse. So we study the communicative functions of language and their relation to grammatical forms through approach language in this way.

dissertation syllabus

They also generation identify a functional aspect, which states that "language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning." The notional-functional syllabus was influenced by the functional view of language, which itself was partly opposite aspect and partly an evolution of the structural view. There have been numerous educators to discuss the 'communicative revolution' beyond structural analyses of language which is provided by linguists but with considering what 'communicative ability' in a language entailed. Therefore, it would apparent that a different view of language would help learners to develop such ability. Malinowshi (1923) showed that the functional view of language was superior to the structural view, and the discourse in context was extremely important. Teaching the knowledge of the structure of written or spoken texts was more important than exclusively teaching grammatical correct, sentences to language learners. The functional view of language also has an intimate relationship with the view expressed by the likes of Hymes (1972. "linguistic theory needed to be seen as part of a more general theory incorporating communication and culture".

(Johnson, 1982). It answer that learning language consists of learning how to mean. Such a syllabus would seek correlations between form and function but would define the link as being between the forms of the language available to the user and the meanings he wishes to express (Munby, 1978). As described by wilkins (1976 the functional-notional syllabus has its starting point something different form either the grammatical syllabus or the situational one. He also points that it is not the linguistic items to be taught but rather the behavioral organization in terms of the purposes for which language is being learned and the kinds of language performance (in terms of language functions) necessary for such purposes. The roots of this type syllabus would be to look at kinds of meanings which have to be considered in second-language teaching (Yalden, 1983). Therefore within them a central concerning is that the meaning of an expression originates from the whole situation in which language is used, not from words or sentences in isolation. 1.1 The theories of language, richards and Rodgers (2001) show a structural view of language, which is that "language is a system of structurally related elements for the coding of meaning".

Because the functional-notional syllabus is intimately related to william communicative language teaching, this type of syllabus has lots of significant merits. However, the relationship between communicative language teaching and functional-notional syllabus design is far from clear, it does present some problems when it is put into practice as well (Brumfit, 1984).As criticizing the structural syllabus for being product-based which is focusing on what language is learnt. However, the notional-functional syllabus is not considered with traditional structure but function, such formal strategies may not be so useful, because it is more difficult to generalize from functions or use them to create new sentences (Wilkins, 1976). A further problem of the notional-functional syllabus was presented with regard to grading, as there was lack of evidence to concern the frequency of functions and when selecting which forms should be used to realize functions, textbook writers had to "depend on intuition" (White, 1988). However, it is an approach which has significant contributions in fulfilling the needs of both foreign language students and teachers. The last part of the essay, i would argue the best suitable teaching situations for the notional-functional syllabus in English language teaching with the various elements of teaching situations. Theory of notional-functional syllabus, a notional-functional syllabus is an approach where the organization of the material is determined with notions or ideas that learners expect to be able to express through the target language and the functions acts learners expect to be able to accomplish.

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Print, reference this, published: 10th June, 2016 10th June, 2016. Introduction, a notional-functional syllabus is an approach where the organization of the material is determined with notions or ideas that mba learners expect to be able to express through the target language and the functions acts learners expect to be able to accomplish (Wilkins, 1976). In this type of syllabus, it contains the same teaching materials as traditional syllabus but organizes them in different way such as around uses or functions (Harlow linda l, 1978). According to wilkins (1972 proponents of this kind of approach believe that the usage of language for learners is more important than the digestion of an unapplied system of grammatical forms. Therefore, a notional-functional syllabus is a kind of communicative syllabus which organize units with the foundation of some functions such as asking question, expressing opinions, expressing wishes, making suggestions, complaining, and apologizing rather than including units instructing noun gender or present tense ending (Wilkins, 1976). First of all, i show how the notional-functional syllabus was brought about and influenced by both theories of language and language learning/acquisition. In the second part, i discuss on strengths and weaknesses of the notional-functional syllabus by the relation between it and communicative language teaching and putting it into the practice.

dissertation syllabus
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