32 Although Charles ii's anti-French Parliament had forced England to withdraw from the Franco-dutch War in 1674, some English regiments remained in French service. In April Churchill was appointed the colonelcy of one such regiment, thereafter serving with, and learning from, the great Marshal Turenne. Churchill was present at the hard-fought the battles of Sinsheim in June 1674, and Enzheim in October; he may also have been present at Sasbach in July 1675, where turenne was killed. 33 Marriage and family edit sarah Churchill, duchess of Marlborough. Attributed to godfrey kneller. On his return. James's Palace, churchill's attention was drawn towards other matters, and to a fresh face at court. "I beg you will let me see you as often as you can pleaded Churchill in a letter to sarah Jennings, "which i am sure you ought to do if you care for my love." 34 Sarah Jennings' social origins were in many ways similar.
However, Churchill never formally acknowledged her. 29 In 1672 Churchill was posted to sea again, and on 28 may fought against the dutch navy in the battle of Solebay (Southwold bay on the suffolk coast. He was possibly aboard the duke of York's flagship, the Prince, which was crippled in the action. Shortly thereafter, Churchill was promoted (above the resentful head of his lieutenant) to a captaincy in the duke of York's Admiralty regiment. 31 The following year Churchill gained a commendation at the siege of maastricht when the young captain distinguished himself as part of the 30-man forlorn hope, successfully capturing and defending part of the fortress. During this incident Churchill is credited with paperless saving the duke of Monmouth 's life, receiving a slight wound in the process but gaining further praise from a grateful house of Stuart, as well as recognition from the house of bourbon. King louis xiv in person commended the deed, from which time forward bore Churchill an enviable reputation for physical courage, as well as earning the high regard of the common soldier.
24 In March 1670, there is an order of the king to provide money owed to Churchill's father, sir Winston, to cover John Churchill's "equippage and other expenses in ye employment he is now forthwith by our command to undertake on board ye fleet. 25 by february 1671, john Churchill was back in London and duelling with Sir John Fenwick. 26 Churchill's handsome features and manner described by lord Chesterfield as "irresistible to either man or woman" had soon attracted the ravenous attentions of one of the king's most noteworthy mistresses, barbara villiers, duchess of Cleveland. 27 But his liaisons with the insatiable temptress were indeed dangerous. One account has it that upon the king's appearance Churchill leapt out of his lover's bed and hid in the cupboard, but the king, himself wily in such matters, soon discovered young Churchill, who promptly fell to his knees. "you are a rascal said Charles, "but I forgive you because you do it to get your bread". 28 The story may be apocryphal another version has Churchill jumping out of the window but it is widely accepted that he was the father of Cleveland's daughter, barbara, born on (O.S.).
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16 he was well-educated 17 and proficient in French, 18 Latin, 19 Greek 20 and German. 21 Early military experience edit james, duke of York by peter Lely, 1665. James, later King James ii, was Marlborough's early patron. The duke of York's passion for all things naval and military rubbed off on young Churchill. Often accompanying the duke inspecting the troops in the royal parks, it was not long before the boy had set his heart on becoming a soldier full himself. 22 On 14 September 1667 (O.S. he obtained a commission as Ensign in the king's Own Company in the 1st guards, later to become the Grenadier guards.
23 Many of Marlborough's hagiographers, following Lediard's panegyric, credit him with service in the garrison of the north African outpost of Tangier, recently acquired as part of the dowry of Charles ii's Portuguese wife, catherine of Braganza. That is unlikely, and even Sir Winston. Churchill says "There is, indeed, no contemporary evidence of his ever having been there". However, Churchill then assumes that he had been there, on the strange basis that Marlborough said that he had, at some time, been to Spain, and he supposedly would have considered the somewhat notorious and decidedly new Stuart possession of Tangier to be "Spain". The known facts are that he was commissioned Ensign in September 1667, as above. On 21 February 1670, the 1st guards, in which he had been commissioned, and the coldstream guards were ordered each to provide fifty musketeers, a corporal, a sergeant and a commissioned officer for service with Sir Thomas Allen's Mediterranean fleet.
7 The eldest daughter, Arabella Churchill, was born on 28 February 1649. 8 John Churchill, the eldest son, was born on (O.S.). The two younger sons were george Churchill (16541710 an admiral in the royal navy, 9 and Charles Churchill (1656-1714 a general who served on campaign in Europe with his eldest brother John. 10 Childhood edit little is known of John Churchill's childhood about which he left no written description, but growing up in these impoverished conditions at Ashe, with family tensions soured by conflicting allegiances, may have made a lasting impression on the young Churchill. His descendant and biographer the Prime minister Sir Winston Churchill, asserted that the conditions at Ashe "might well have aroused in his mind two prevailing impressions: first a hatred of poverty. And secondly the need of hiding thoughts and feelings from those to whom their expression would be repugnant".
11 youth and education edit After the restoration of King Charles ii in 1660 his father's fortunes took a turn for the better, although he remained far from prosperous. 12 In 1661, winston became member of Parliament for weymouth, and as a mark of royal favour he received rewards for losses incurred fighting against the parliamentarians during the civil war, including the appointment as a commissioner for Irish Land Claims in Dublin in 1661. When Winston departed for Ireland the following year, john enrolled at the dublin Free school; but by 1664, following his father's recall to the position of Junior Clerk comptroller of the king's household at Whitehall, john had transferred his studies to St paul's School. The king's own penury meant the old cavaliers received scant financial reward, but the prodigal monarch could offer something which would cost him nothing positions at court for their progeny. Thus in 1665, john's sister Arabella became maid of Honour to Anne hyde, the duchess of York. Some months later John, 15, joined her at court serving as page to Anne's husband, james, duke of York, the king's brother, destined to be king himself. 13 It was also known that John Churchill, a keen student, was educated in the University of Oxford, 14 15 where he studied philosophy, classics and mathematics.
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Devon Record Office 564M/F7/129. It was then in use as a farmhouse. This is the house re-built by sir John Drake, 1st Baronet (16251669) after its near destruction during the civil War. The building at left is a chapel 4 At the end of the English civil War Lady Drake was joined at her devon home, ash house in the parish of Musbury, by her fourth daughter Elizabeth gpa Drake and her husband Winston Churchill (16201688 a royalist. Unlike his mother-in-law who had supported the parliamentary cause, winston had the misfortune of fighting on the losing side of the war for which he, like so many other cavaliers, was forced to compound ; in his case 446 18s. 5 Although Winston had paid off the fine by 1651, it had impoverished him. From this episode may derive the Churchill family motto : fiel Pero desdichado faithful but Unfortunate. 6 Siblings edit winston Churchill and his wife Elizabeth Drake had at least nine children, only five of whom survived infancy.
He successfully maintained unity among the allies, thereby demonstrating his diplomatic skills. Throughout ten consecutive campaigns during the Spanish Succession war, marlborough held together a discordant coalition through his sheer force of personality and raised the standing of British arms to a level not known since the middle Ages. Although in the end he could not compel total capitulation from his enemies, his victories allowed Britain to rise from a minor to a major power, ensuring the country's growing prosperity throughout the 18th century. Contents Early life (16501678) edit Origins edit Churchill was the son of Sir Winston Churchill (16201688) of Glanvilles wootton in Dorset, by his wife Elizabeth Drake, fourth daughter of Sir John Drake (died 1636) of Ash in the parish of Musbury listhesis in devon. 2 The Churchill family are stated by the devon historian William george hoskins (1954) to have originated at the estate of Churchill, in the parish of Broadclyst in devon, during the reign of King Henry ii (11541189). 3 Ashe house edit "Ash, antient seat of the Drakes", watercolour dated 13 February 1795 by rev. John Swete (17521821) of Oxton, devon.
on the fields of Blenheim (1704 ramillies (1706 oudenarde (1708 and Malplaquet (1709 ensured his place in history as one of Europe's great generals. But his wife's stormy relationship with the queen, and her subsequent dismissal from court, was central to his own fall. Incurring Anne's disfavour, and caught between Tory and Whig factions, marlborough, who had brought glory and success to Anne's reign, was forced from office and went into self-imposed exile. He returned to England and to influence under the house of Hanover with the accession of george I to the British throne in 1714. Marlborough's insatiable ambition made him the richest of all Anne's subjects. His family connections wove him into the fabric of European politics (his sister Arabella became james ii's mistress, and their son, the duke of Berwick, emerged as one of louis xiv 's greatest Marshals). His leadership of the allied armies consolidated Britain's emergence as a front-rank power.
From a noble family, he served first as a page at the court of the, house of Stuart under, james, duke of York, through the 1670s and early 1680s, earning military and political advancement through his courage and diplomatic skill. Churchill's role in defeating the. Monmouth Rebellion in 1685 helped secure james on the throne, yet just three years later he abandoned his Catholic patron for the Protestant Dutchman, william of Orange. Honoured for his services at William's coronation with the earldom. Marlborough, he served with further distinction in the early years of the. Nine years' war, but persistent charges of, jacobitism brought about his fall from office and temporary imprisonment in the. It was not until the accession. Queen Anne in 1702 that Marlborough reached the zenith of his powers and secured his fame and fortune.
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"duke of Marlborough" and "John Churchill" redirect here. For subsequent dukes, japanese see. Duke of Marlborough (title). For others of this name, see. John Churchill by the studio. John Michael Rysbrack,.1730, national Portrait Gallery, london. General, john Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st count of Nellenburg, Prince of the holy roman Empire, kg, pC ( /mɑrlbərə/, often /mɔrl-/ ; 1 . ) was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs.