A brief history of time summary

A Brief History of Time - simple English wikipedia, the free

In Europe, genetic improvement led to a wide variety of cultivars. White and orange-coloured carrots were first described in Western Europe in the early 1600s (Banga 1963). Concomitantly, the Asiatic carrot was developed from the Afghan type and a red type appeared in China and India around the 1700s (Laufer 1919; Shinohara 1984). According to this history, it makes sense to envisage that colour should be considered as a structural factor in carrot germplasm. Root types of these early carrots were categorized as yellow or purple and a flavour difference coincided with the colour. In Persia and Arabia, yellow carrots were generally regarded as more acrid in flavour and less succulent than purple carrots (Clement-Mullet 1864).

Finally we have the reporter French to thank for popular modern varieties such as Nantes and Chantenay, with credit to the 19th century horticulturist louis de vilmorin, who laid the foundations for modern plant breeding. It's a long story. First cultivation - where and when. The time frame and geographic region(s) of the first cultivation of carrots are unclear. 337340) identified Asia minor (eastern Turkey) and the inner Asiatic regions as the centers of origin of cultivated carrot and noted Central Asia (kazakhstan, kyrgyzstan, tajikistan, turkmenistan, uzbekistan) as being the basic center of Asiatic kinds of cultivated carrots where wild carrots practically invited. As observed by the presence of carrot seed at prehistoric human habitations 4000 to 5000 years ago ( Newiler, 1931 it is speculated that wild carrot seed was used medicinally or as a spice ( Andrews, 1949 ; Brothwell and Brothwell, 1969). Carrot was cultivated and used as a storage root similar to modern carrots in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, and perhaps Anatolia beginning in the 10th century (Mackevic, 1932 ; Zagorodskikh, 1939). On the basis of historical documents, the first domesticated carrot roots were purple and yellow and recorded in Central Asia, asia minor, then in Western Europe and finally in England between the 11th and 15th centuries ( Banga, 1963 ). Interestingly, orange carrots were not well documented until the 15th and 16th centuries in Europe ( Banga, 1957a, b ; Stolarczyk and Janick, 2011 indicating that orange carotenoid accumulation may have resulted from a secondary domestication event. The cultivated carrot is believed to originate from Afghanistan before the 900s, as this area is described as the primary centre of greatest carrot diversity (Mackevic 1929), turkey being proposed as a secondary centre of origin (Banga 1963). The first cultivated carrots exhibited purple or yellow roots.

a brief history of time summary

A brief History of Time - wikipedia

Carrots were originally recorded as being cultivated in present day afghanistan about 1000 years ago, probably as a purple or yellow root like those pictured here. . Carrot cultivation spread to Spain in the 1100s via the middle east and North Africa. Purple, white and yellow carrots were brought into southern Europe in the 14th century and were widely grown in Europe into the 16th Century. Purple and white carrots still grow wild in Afghanistan today where they are used by some tribesmen to produce a strong alcoholic beverage. Over the ensuing centuries, orange carrots came to dominate and carrots of other colours were only preserved by growers in remote regions of the world. Nature then took a hand and produced mutants and natural hybrids, crossing both with cultivated and wild varieties. It is considered that purple carrots were then taken westwards where it is now known, through modern genetic research, that yellow varieties were developed the to produce orange. Then some motivated Dutch growers took these "new" orange carrots under their horticultural wings and developed them to be sweeter, consistent and more practical. .

a brief history of time summary

A brief History Of Time summary - four Minute books

So the evolution of cultivars with enlarged roots can easily be explained, but what has puzzled historians is why it took so long for the modern cultivated, edible carrot to appear. The clue is that, although evidence of wild carrot seeds have been found in pre-historic cave dwellings and Greek and Roman records they were only used in medicinal applications and not for consumption mattress of the root, as a food. Unravelling the progress of the peregrinating carrot through the ages is complex and inconclusive, but nevertheless a fascinating journey through time and the history of mankind. The wild Carrot is the progenitor (wild ancestor) of the domestic carrot (direct descendent) and both still co-exist in the modern world. . Wild Carrot is indigenous to europe and parts of Asia and, from archaeological evidence, seeds have been found dating since mesolithic times, approximately 10000 years ago. One cannot imagine that the root would have been used at that time, but the seeds are known to be medicinal and it is likely the seeds were merely gathered rather than actually cultivated. Wild carrot has a small, tough pale fleshed bitter white root; modern domestic carrot has a swollen, juice sweet root, usually orange. .

The redness feature is thought ot have emerged in varieties developed in post classical times, after hybridisation with a central Asian species in the early middle ages. The first European author who mentions red and yellow carrots is the byzantine dietician Simeon Seth, in the 11th century. (references: dioscorides mm 3,57,.101;Galen.654,.862; Athenaeus D 371d-e citing Diphilus of Siphnos (karo simeon Seth p35 Langkavel) The carrot has a somewhat obscure history, surrounded by doubt and enigma and it is difficult to pin down when domestication took place. The wide distribution of Wild Carrot, the absence of carrot root remains in archaeological excavations and lack of documentary evidence do not enable us to determine precisely where and when carrot domestication was initiated. Over thousands of years it moved from being a small, tough, bitter and spindly root to a fleshy, sweet, pigmented unbranched edible root. . Even before the introduction of domesticated carrots, wild plants were grown in gardens as medicinal plants. When carrot is grown in favourable conditions the roots of successive generations enlarge quickly.

A brief History of Time: Summary"s

a brief history of time summary

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Adaptation to northern latitudes has been accompanied by change in photoperiod response. Both the wild and the cultivated carrots belong to the species. Wild book carrot is distinguished by the name. Daucus carota, carota, whereas domesticated carrot belongs. Wild carrot is more in evidence than cultivated carrots in classical sources.

They had edible leaves and thin, strong tasting white roots which ere prescribed for medicinal purposes. Names include Greek keras, staphylinos agrios, daukos and Latin daucus, pastinaca rustica. According to Pliny and dioscorides these had aphrodisiac properties. (References:Dioscorides mm 3,35;Pliny nh 19,89, also.30-2 citing Orpheus, also.110-12;Galen.129) An early form of carrot began to be cultivated in the last few centuries bce. It is first mentioned in the 3rd century bce by diphilus of Siphnos. It was diuretic; it was also juicier and more digestible than the parsnip. This carrot was not red dream (or orange it was whitish and understandably confused with parsnip as the same plant.

In Dutch it is wortel. There are two main types of cultivated carrots: 1) Eastern/Asiatic carrots: These are often called anthocyanin carrots because or their purple/black roots, although some have yellow roots. They have pubescent leaves giving them a gray-green colour, and bolt easily. The greatest diversity of these carrots is found in Afghanistan, russia, iran and India. These are possible centers of domestication, which took place around the 10th century.

Anthocyanin carrots are still under cultivation in Asia, but are being rapidly replaced by orange rooted Western carrots. 2) Western or Carotene carrots: These have orange, red or white roots. Most likely these carrots derived from the first group by selection among hybrid progenies of yellow Eastern carrots, white carrots and wild subspecies grown in the mediterranean. The first two originated by mutation. These carrots may have originated in Turkey. Carotene carrots are relatively recent, from the 16/17th century. Orange carrots were probably first cultivated in the netherlands. Present cultivars seem to originate from long orange varieties developed there.

A brief History of Time summary

From Persia, cultivated carrot spread to surrounding areas. Orange carrots appear to have become popular in the 16th writing century when Dutch and Spanish paintings began depicting orange carrots in market scenes (Banga 1963), although orange carrots likely originated much earlier (Stolarczyk janick 2011). Banga (1957) first hypothesized that orange carrots were initially selected from yellow shakespeare cultivars and this is now supported by modern genetic analyses (Simon et al 2016). The western, orange carrot probably arose in Europe or in the western Mediterranean region through gradual selection within yellow carrot populations. The dutch landraces Long Orange and the finer Horn types, first described in 1721, were an important basis for the western carrot cultivars grown at present all over the world. The word "carrot" was first recorded in English around 1530 and was borrowed from Middle French carotte, itself from Late latin carōta, from Greek καρωτόν karōton, originally from the Indo-european root *ker- (horn due to its horn-like shape. In Old English, carrots (typically white at the time) were not clearly distinguished from parsnips, the two being collectively called moru or more (from Proto-Indo-european *mork- "edible root german for carrot is Möhre). Various languages still use the same word for "carrot" as they do for "root.

a brief history of time summary

These forms spread to the west and East reaching Asia minor around the 10th or 11th centuries, Arab occupied Spain in the 12th century, continental North West Europe by the 14th writing century. England in the early 15th century. Before the 16th century carrots were purple or yellow with long roots. The yellow roots were often preferred because they did no t release anthocyanins during cooking. In the 16th century it is thought that Dutch growers developed a denser orange carotene carrot from yellow varieties and this deep orange carrot was the progenitor of the modern cultivated carrot we know. The first evidence of carrot used as a food crop is in the Iranian Plateau and the persian Empire in the 10th century ad (Brothwell brothwell 1969). These original carrot roots were purple and yellow in colour.

uniformly biennial or winter annual. Modern carrot breeders have further refined the carrot, improving flavour, sweetness, reducing bitterness and improving texture and colour. There have also been significant improvements in disease and pest reduction resulting in ever increasing yields. . Flavour, nutritional and processing qualities are also uppermost in the minds of modern breeders. Carrots are subdivided into two groups 1) Anthocyanin (Eastern) group (Daucus carota ssp. Atrorubens Alef.) cultivars traditionally grown in Turkey, afghanistan, Egypt, pakistan, and India; (purple/black roots, some yellow) 2) Carotene (Western) group (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus) cultivars grown worldwide (orange/red/white roots). Overview, it is generally assumed that the eastern, purple-rooted carrot originated in Afghanistan in the region where the himalayan and Hindu kush mountains meet, and that it was domesticated in Afghanistan and adjacent regions of Russia, iran, India, pakistan and Anatolia. Purple carrot, together with a yellow variant, spread to the mediterranean region and western Europe in the 1114th centuries, and to China, india and Japan in the 1417th centuries. The cultivated carrot is believed to have originated from forms with roots coloured purple anthocyanins as well as yellow mutants lacking anthocyanins.

It is considered that Carrots were originally purple or white with resume a thin root, then a mutant occurred which removed the purple pigmentation resulting in a new race of yellow carrots, from which orange carrots were subsequently developed. The centre of diversity for the carrot is in Central Asia, and the first cultivation of carrot for its storage root is reported to be in the Afghanistan region, approximately 1,100 years ago (Mackevic 1929). Long before carrot was domesticated, wild carrot had become widespread, as seeds were found in Europe dating back nearly 5,000 years ago. Today wild carrot is found around the world in temperate regions, particularly in wild areas, road sides and agricultural land. Wild carrot appears in many temperate regions of the world, far beyond its Mediterranean and Asian centres of origin where this plant displays great diversity. Almost certainly those ancient cultures in these regions used wild and early forms of the domesticated carrot as a herb and a medicine before they were used as a root vegetable in the conventional sense of that term today. It is also quite likely that the seeds were used medicinally in the mediterranean region since antiquity (Banga 1958). There is good genetic evidence that wild carrot is the direct progenitor of the cultivated carrot (Simon 2000). Selection for a swollen rooted type suitable for domestic consumption undoubtedly took many centuries.

A brief History of Time Chapter Summaries - course hero

History of Carrots - a brief summary and timeline. History of Carrots - a brief Summary timeline. Chapters in the history rooms: Brief Carrot History and Timeline, the cultivated carrot is one of the most important root vegetables grown in temperate regions of the world. It was derived from the wild carrot, which has whitish/ivory coloured roots. The most popular, orange rooted carrot, is derived from yellow rooted domestic varieties. . Early writings in classical Greek and Roman times refer essay to edible white roots, but these may have also been parsnips, or both. There are white rooted carrots in existence today, often used as animal feed or a novelty crop. The earliest vegetable definitely known to be a carrot dates from the 10th century in Persia and Asia minor and would have been quite unlike the orange rooted carrot of today.

a brief history of time summary
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