Zotin Aging and rejuvenation from the standpoint of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes Priroda,. 9, 49-55, 1970 citing the theory of Prigogine-wiame, argued that the aging process involves both a decrease in entropy and a decrease in the rate of heat production. Regeneration involves a production of entropy, as when an egg is formed. (The temperature fluctuation at the time of ovulation might make a contribution to the construction of the entropic egg.) The essay argument that aging of the animal (like aging of the cosmos) is governed by "the tendency of entropy to increase" has led people to say. Zotin's argument is interesting, because he says that an egg is a "scrambled animal." This view is very much like warburg's and szent-gyorgyi's theory of cancer, that it is like a reversion to a simpler state of life. To sketch out what I have argued in different contexts, water is the part of the living substance that we can most meaningfully discuss in terms of entropy. In fact, much of the concept of entropy has derived from the study of water, as it changed state in steam engines, etc. Cancer cells, like egg cells, have a higher water content than the differentiated, functioning cells of an adult, and the water is less rigidly ordered by the cellular molecules.
Actually, it is just the directed flow of energy which generates the structures. If any biological argument can be made from the idea of entropy, it is that it would be extremely difficult to regenerate food, by putting heat into a person. In a few situations, it is possible to show that living structures can directly absorb heat from their environment (causing the temperature to fall)-"negative heat production"-but the exact meaning of this isn't clear. Abbott,., "The positive and negative heat production associated with a nerve impulse proc. B 148, 149, 1958;. Ritchie, "The initial heat production of amphibian myelinated nerve fibres needed Proc. Soc., june 1970, page 29P-30P: "It is now clear that in both d mammalian (Howarth,., 1968) non-myelinated fibres there is an initial production of heat during (or soon after) the action potential, 80 of which is rapidly reabsorbed.
The clock with its wound-up spring and the seed in a dish of water may be considered as closed systems, and we can understand their fate. But if it is foolish to argue from a confined seed to free-living organisms, then it is just as foolish to argue from a clock to a cosmos. Unfortunately, these inferences about closed systems are often applied to real situations that aren't energetically closed. The "rate of living" theory of aging picked up the idea of aging as a natural physical property of time, and gave it expression in mathematical form, arguing (Hershey, "Entropy, basal metabolism and life expectancy gerontologia 7, 245-250, 1963) that "the total lifetime entropy production". This suggests an image. Frankenstein vivifying his monster with lightning, putting the heat back into the body. If heat is to be "put back into the body it is necessary to make sure that it is appropriate for the structure as it exists.
What Is Alzheimer s Disease?
Isn't a child a richer organization than a fertilized egg? Isn't an adult writing more individualized or realized than an infant? Seen from the man inside, our known world gets richer with experience. Learning is certainly anti-entropic. Where does the idea of "increasing entropy with living" come from? Many things contribute, including a doctrine of genetic determinism, the old Platonic idea of the imperfection of the concrete, the unreality of the existent, and the medieval idea of the "corruption of the body." These philosophies still motivate some people in aging research.
Kozyrev, showed that the idea of an "entropic cosmos" derived simply from the assumptions of 19th century deism, "God set the clockwork universe in motion, and left it to run down." Early in this century, raymond pearl argued that the "rate of living" governed the. He based his argument on cantaloupe seeds: the faster they grew, the sooner they died. This was because he didn't give them anything but water, so they had to live on their stored energy; if they grew quickly, obviously they ran out of stored energy sooner. I have never heard that described as a stupid idea, but I think politeness is sometimes carried too far. In the clock analogy, or the seed analogy, the available energy is used.
If rats are treated during pregnancy to increase the amount of progesterone, the offspring have bigger brains and learn more efficiently. Still, that might just be restoring a condition that was natural for rats in some perfect environment. Chickens develop inside an egg shell, and so the nutrients needed for their development are all present when the egg is laid. The brain, like the other organs, stops growing when the food supply is used. But an experimenter (Zamenhof) opened the egg shells at the stage of development when the brain normally stops growing, and added glucose, and found that the brain continued growing, producing chickens with bigger brains.
The "genes" of a chicken, as part of a system, have something to do with the development of that system, but the environment existing in and around the organism is able to guide and support the way the system develops. The size, complexity, and intelligence of the brain represents a very large part of the "information" contained in the organism, and Zamenhof's experiment showed that the ability to realize this potential, to create this complexity, comes from the support of the environment, and that the. I am going to argue that Alzheimer's disease is analogous to the situation confronted by the developing chicken embryo or the rat or human fetus, when the environment is unable to meet the needs of the highly energetic, demanding and sensitive brain cells, and the. There are two stereotypes that are in conflict with this view: (1) That the structure of the brain is determined at an early point in life, sometimes explicitly stated as the age of 12 or 16, and (2) that the structure of the brain goes. My position is that the brain cells are in a vital developmental process at all times, and that the same things that injure the brain of a fetus also injure the brain of an aging person. If novelty is really appearing during development, then it is hard to maintain that "entropy increases" during the development of an individual.
Alzheimer s disease - symptoms and causes - mayo clinic
Endotoxemia may be a factor in nerve degeneration only during adult life, but it is sometimes present during pregnancy. Diamond, Enriching Heredity: The Importance of the Environment on the Anatomy of the Brain. Hayflick, handbook of the biology of Aging. Van Nostrand reinhold,. When a fertilized egg is developing into a person, each cell division creates a new environment for the daughter cells, to which they adapt. They may run into limits and resistances (sometimes a certain gene doesn't meet the need of the situation, or toxins are present, or nutrients and hormones are imperfectly supplied but the process is flexible, and a way is normally found to get around the limitation. The embryo's brain development is my favorite example of the ways genes interact with the environment. We might think of the "optimal brain development" of a person, or a rat, or a chicken, as something which is clearly limited by "the genes." But if rats are given a stimulating environment, each generation gets a slightly bigger, slightly more short intelligent brain.
In what follows, i am acting as though the doctrines of genetic determination and regulation by membranes were mere historical relics. The emerging control systems are off now clear enough that we can begin to use them to reverse the degenerative diseases: Alzheimer's dementia, epileptic dementia, arthritis, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension, hardening of the heart and blood vessels, diabetes, and some types of tumor, immunodeficiencies, reflex problems, and. I think many people experience regenerative age-regressing when many circumstances are just right; for example, taking a trip to the mountains in the spring with friends can optimize several basic regulatory systems. Most people are surprised by the number of cells in the prenatal brain, and in the very old brain: In the human fetus at 6 months of development, there are about twice as many brain cells as there are at the time of birth, and. In the aged brain, glial cells multiply while neurons die. In the fetus, the cells that die are apparently nerve cells that haven't yet matured. The factors that are known to reduce the brain size at birth are also factors that are involved in the degenerating brain in old age or Alzheimer's disease: lack of oxygen, excess unsaturated fats or deficiency of saturated fats, estrogen excess, progesterone deficiency, and lack. A lack of carbon dioxide is probably harmful in both. Inflammation and blood clots may be factors in the aging brain, and bleeding with vascular spasm is sometimes a contributing factor to brain damage in both the old and the fetal brain.
has been learned about their interactions in the aging process. The body, during this time, has been understood as a dynamic interaction of cellular trophic influences which govern both form and function. My argument here will be that some of our adaptive, protective regulatory processes are overridden by the excessive supply of unsaturated fats-supported by a few other toxins-in our diet, acting as a false-signal system, and that cholesterol, pregnenolone, and progesterone which are our main long-range. At certain times, especially childhood and old age, iron (which also has important regulatory roles) accumulates to the point that its signal functions may be inappropriate. It interacts with estrogen and unsaturated fats in ways that can change restraint and adaptation into sudden self-destruction, apoptotic cell death. If we look at the human organism from one perspective, it seems coherent and intelligible, but from the perspective of established academic biological doctrine, it seems appallingly complex, lacking any visible integrating principle, and as a result simplistic mechanical, pharmaceutical, or religious ideas are increasingly. But experimental data can be taken out of the muddle, and put to coherent human use.
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Alzheimer s Disease: overview facts - webMD