67 68 The vessels may have been used as cookware, manufactured by hunter-gatherers. 68 The Israeli archaeologist Ofer Bar-Yosef reported that "When you look at the pots, you can see that they were in a fire." 69 Dagger-axe : The dagger-axe or ge was developed from agricultural stone implement during the neolithic, dagger-axe made of stone are found. It also appeared as ceremonial and symbolic jade weapon at around the same time, two being dated from about 2500 bc, are found at the lingjiatan site in Anhui. 70 The first bronze ge appeared at the early Bronze age Erlitou site, 70 where wallpaper two were being found among the over 200 bronze artifacts (as of 2002) at the site, 71 three jade ge were also discovered from the same site. 72 Total of 72 bronze ge in Tomb 1004 at houjiazhuang, Anyang, 73 39 jade ge in tomb of fu hao and over 50 jade ge at Jinsha site were found alone. 70 It was the basic weapon of Shang (c. BC) and Zhou (c.1050256 BC) infantry, although it was sometimes used by the "striker" of charioteer crews.
59 Coffin, wooden : The earliest evidence of wooden coffin remains, dated at 5000 bc, was found in the tomb 4 at beishouling, Shaanxi. Clear evidence of a wooden coffin in the form of a rectangular shape was found in Tomb 152 in an early banpo site. The banpo coffin belongs to a four-year-old girl, measuring.4 m (4.5 ft).55 m (1.8 ft) and 39 cm thick. As many as 10 wooden coffins have been found from the dawenkou culture (41002600 BC) site at Chengzi, shandong. 60 61 The thickness of the coffin, as determined by the number of timber frames in its composition, also emphasized the level of nobility, as mentioned in the Classic of Rites, 62 Xunzi 63 and Zhuangzi. 64 Examples of this have been found in several neolithic sites; the double coffin, the earliest of which was found in the liangzhu culture (34002250 BC) site at puanqiao, zhejiang, consists of an outer and an inner coffin, while the triple coffin, with its earliest. 65 A large water vessel of the late yangshao culture, 4th millennium. Cookware and pottery vessel : The earliest pottery, used as vessels, was discovered in 2012, found in xianrendong cave located in the jiangxi province of China. 66 The pottery dates to 20,000 to 19,000.
Late nineteenth Century Inventors and
12th century) was the first to mention use of the compass specifically for navigation at sea in his book published in 1119. Even before this, however, the wujing Zongyao military manuscript compiled by 1044 described a thermoremanence compass of heated iron or steel shaped as a fish and placed in a bowl of water which produced a weak magnetic force via remanence and induction; the wujing Zongyao. 49 50 Pre-Shang edit Inventions which originated in what is now China during the neolithic age and prehistoric Bronze age are listed in alphabetical order below. Chinese alcoholic rice wine containers. Alcoholic beverage and the process of fermentation disadvantages : The earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation and the consumption of alcoholic beverages was discovered in neolithic China dating from. Examination and analysis of ancient pottery jars from the neolithic village of jiahu in Henan province in northern China revealed fermented residue left behind by the alcoholic beverages they once contained. According to a study published in the Proceedings of the national Academy of Sciences, chemical analysis of the residue revealed that the fermented drink was made from fruit, rice and honey.
51 52 Elsewhere in the world, fermented beverages have been found dating from 6000 bc in georgia, 53 3150 bc in ancient Egypt, 54 3000 bc in Babylon, 55 2000 bc in pre-hispanic Mexico, bc in Sudan. 56 Bell : Clapper-bells made of pottery have been found in several archaeological sites. 57 The earliest metal bells, with one found in the taosi site, and four in the Erlitou site, dated to about 2000 bc, may have been derived from the earlier pottery prototype. 58 Early bells not only have an important role in generating metal sound, but arguably played a prominent cultural role. With the emergence of other kinds of bells during the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 . 1050 bc they were relegated to subservient functions; at Shang and Zhou sites, they are also found as part of the horse-and-chariot gear and as collar-bells of dogs.
Bombs launched from trebuchet catapults mounted on forecastles of naval ships ensured the victory of Song over Jin forces at the battle of caishi in 1161, while the mongol yuan Dynasty (12711368) used gunpowder bombs during their failed invasion of Japan in 1230 During the. 14th to early 15th century) and liu bowen (13111375). It was completed in 1412, a long while after liu's death, with a preface added by the jiao in its Nanyang publication. 32 Compass edit a model in kaifeng of a chinese ladle-and-bowl type compass used for geomancy in the han Dynasty (202 BC 220 ad the historical authenticity of the model has been questioned by li shu-hua (1954). 33 Although an ancient hematite artifact from the Olmec era in Mexico dating to roughly 1000 bc indicates the possible use of the lodestone compass long before it was described in China, the Olmecs did not have iron which the Chinese would discover could.
34 Descriptions of lodestone attracting iron were made in the guanzi, master lu's Spring and Autumn Annals and huainanzi. The Chinese by the han Dynasty (202 BC 220 AD) began using north-south oriented lodestone ladle-and-bowl shaped compasses for divination and geomancy and not yet for navigation. The lunheng, written by han dynasty writer, scientist, and philosopher Wang Chong (27 . 100 AD) stated in chapter 52: "This instrument resembles a spoon and when it is placed on a plate on the ground, the handle points to the south". 41 42 There are, however, another two references under chapter 47 of the same text to the attractive power of a magnet according to needham (1986 43 but li shu-hua (1954) considers it to be lodestone, and states that there is no explicit mention. 33 The Chinese polymath Shen kuo (10311095) of the song Dynasty (9601279) was the first to accurately describe both magnetic declination (in discerning true north ) and the magnetic needle compass in his Dream pool Essays of 1088, while the song dynasty writer Zhu.
Ielts writing Task 2: positive or negative essay - ielts
12901333) of the yuan Dynasty (12711368 who also arranged written characters by rhyme scheme on the surface of round table compartments. 21 24 It was not until 1490 with the printed works of hua sui (14391513) of the ming Dynasty (13681644) that the Chinese perfected metal movable type characters, namely bronze. 25 26 The qing Dynasty (16441912) scholar xu zhiding of tai'an, shandong paperless developed vitreous enamel movable type printing in 1718. 27 Gunpowder edit earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the wujing Zongyao of 1044. Evidence of gunpowder 's first use in China comes from the tang dynasty (618907). 28 The earliest known recorded recipes for gunpowder were written by zeng Gongliang, ding du and Yang weide in the wujing Zongyao, a military manuscript compiled in 1044 during the song Dynasty (9601279). Its gunpowder formulas describe the use of incendiary bombs launched from catapults, thrown down from defensive walls, or lowered down the wall by use of iron chains operated by a swape lever.
17 a korean miniature for dharani buddhist sutra discovered in 1966, bearing extinct Chinese writing characters used only during the reign of China's only self-ruling empress, wu zetian (r.690705 is dated no earlier than 704 and preserved in a silla korean temple stupa built in 751. 18 The first printed periodical, the kaiyuan za bao was made available in ad 713. However, the earliest known book printed at regular size is the diamond Sutra made during the tang Dynasty (618907.18 m (17 ft) long scroll which bears the date 868. 19 Joseph needham and Tsien Tsuen-hsuin write that the cutting and printing techniques used for the delicate calligraphy of the diamond Sutra book are much more advanced and refined than the miniature dharani sutra printed earlier. 19 An illustration published in Wang Zhen's (. 12901333) book of ad 1313 showing movable type characters arranged by rhyme scheme in round table compartments movable type : The polymath scientist and official Shen kuo (10311095) of the song Dynasty (9601279) was the first to describe the process of movable type printing. He attributed the innovation of reusable fired clay characters to a little-known artisan named bi sheng (9901051). Bi had experimented with wooden type characters, but their use was not perfected until 1297 to 1298 with the model of the official Wang Zhen (fl.
Inventions —as designated by joseph needham (19001995 a british scientist, author and sinologist known for his research on the history of Chinese science and technology. 9 Fragments of hemp wrapping paper dated to the reign of Emperor wu of Han (14187 BC) The diamond Sutra, the oldest printed book, published in ad 868 during the tang Dynasty (618907) Paper edit This sub-section is about paper making; for the writing material. Although it is recorded that the han Dynasty (202 BC ad 220) court eunuch cai lun (50 AD ad 121) invented the pulp papermaking process and established the use of new materials used in making paper, ancient padding and wrapping paper artifacts dating to the. The earliest known piece of paper with writing on it was discovered in the ruins of a chinese watchtower at Tsakhortei, alxa league, where han Dynasty troops had deserted their position in ad 110 following a xiongnu attack. 16 In the paper making process established by cai in 105, a boiled mixture of mulberry tree bark, hemp, old linens and fish nets created a pulp that was pounded into paste and stirred with water; a wooden frame sieve with a mat of sewn. Tom says this process was gradually improved through leaching, polishing and glazing to produce a smooth, strong paper. 13 14 Printing edit yuan dynasty banknote with its printing wood plate 1287. For the separate invention of movable type printing in medieval Europe, see printing press and Johannes Gutenberg. Woodblock printing : The earliest specimen of woodblock printing is a single-sheet dharani sutra in Sanskrit that was printed on hemp paper between 650 and 670 AD; it was unearthed in 1974 from a tang tomb near xi'an.
2 3 4 In water-powered clockworks, the wallpaper premodern Chinese had used the escapement mechanism since the 8th century and the endless power-transmitting chain drive in the 11th century. They also made large mechanical puppet theaters driven by waterwheels and carriage wheels and wine-serving automatons driven by paddle wheel boats. The contemporaneous peiligang and Pengtoushan cultures represent the oldest neolithic cultures of China and were formed around 7000. 5 Some of the first inventions of neolithic China include semilunar and rectangular stone knives, stone hoes and spades, the cultivation of millet, rice, and the soybean, the refinement of sericulture, the building of rammed earth structures with lime -plastered house floors, the creation. 6 7 The British sinologist Francesca Bray argues that the domestication of the ox and buffalo during the longshan culture (c. 2000 BC) period, the absence of Longshan-era irrigation or high-yield crops, full evidence of Longshan cultivation of dry-land cereal crops which gave high yields "only when the soil was carefully cultivated suggest that the plough was known at least by the longshan culture period and. 8 Later inventions such as the multiple-tube seed drill and heavy moldboard iron plough enabled China to sustain a much larger population through greater improvements in agricultural output. For the purposes of this list, inventions are regarded as technological firsts developed in China, and as such does not include foreign technologies which the Chinese acquired through contact, such as the windmill from the middle east or the telescope from early modern Europe. It also does not include technologies developed elsewhere and later invented separately by the Chinese, such as the odometer, water wheel, and chain pump.
Seventeenth Century Inventors and
A bronze chinese crossbow trigger mechanism with a butt plate (the wooden components have since eroded and disappeared inlaid with silver, from either the late. Warring States period (403256 BC) or the early, han Dynasty (202 BC ad 220 china has been the source of many innovations, scientific discoveries and inventions. This includes the, four Great Inventions : papermaking, the compass, gunpowder, and printing (both woodblock and movable type ). The list below contains these and other inventions in China attested by archaeological or historical evidence. The historical region now known as China experienced a history involving mechanics, hydraulics and mathematics applied to horology, metallurgy, astronomy, agriculture, engineering, music theory, craftsmanship, naval architecture and warfare. By the warring States period (403221 bc inhabitants of the warring States had advanced metallurgic technology, including the blast furnace and cupola furnace, while the finery forge and puddling process were known by the han Dynasty (202 bcad 220). A sophisticated economic system in imperial China gave birth to inventions such as paper money during the song Dynasty (9601279). The invention of gunpowder during the mid 9th century led to an array of inventions such as the fire lance, land mine, naval mine, hand cannon, exploding cannonballs, multistage rocket and rocket bombs with aerodynamic wings and explosive payloads. With the navigational aid of the 11th century compass and ability to steer at high sea with the 1st century sternpost rudder, premodern Chinese sailors sailed as far as East Africa.