He was also chosen as an editor of the harvard Law review, although he resigned in 1894 because it took too much time from his studies. 29 During the 1890s, harvard Law School was pioneering the casebook method of teaching introduced by dean Christopher Langdell. 30 31 Apart from Langdell, hand's professors included Samuel Williston, john improve Chipman Gray, and James Barr Ames. Hand preferred those teachers who valued common sense and fairness, and ventured beyond casebook study into the philosophy of law. 32 His favorite professor was James Bradley thayer, who taught him evidence in his second year and constitutional law in his third. A man of broad interests, Thayer became a major influence on Hand's jurisprudence. He emphasized the law's historical and human dimensions rather than its certainties and extremes.
26 Family tradition and expectation suggested that he would study law after graduation. For a while, he seriously considered post-graduate work in wallpaper philosophy, but he received no encouragement from his family or philosophy professors. Doubting himself, he "drifted" toward law. 28 Hand's three years at Harvard Law School were intellectually and socially stimulating. In his second year, he moved into a boarding house with a group of fellow law students who were to become close friends. They studied hard and enjoyed discussing philosophy and literature and telling bawdy tales. Hand's learned reputation proved less of a hindrance at law school than it had as an undergraduate. He was elected to the pow-Wow Club, in which law students practiced their skills in moot courts.
He was equally unsuccessful with the Glee club and the football team; for a time he rowed as a substitute for the rowing club. He later described himself as a "serious boy a hard worker who did not smoke, drink, or consort with prostitutes. 24 he mixed more in his sophomore and senior years. He became a member of the hasty pudding Club and appeared as a blond-wigged chorus girl in the 1892 student musical. He was also elected president of The harvard Advocate, a student literary magazine. 25 learned Hand (front row, second from right) with fellow students outside austin Hall at Harvard Law School, between 18's studious ways resulted in his election to Phi beta kappa, an elite society of scholarly students. 26 he graduated with highest honors, was awarded a master's as well as a bachelor's degree, 27 and was chosen by his classmates to deliver the Class day oration at the 1893 commencement.
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18 Vacations, spent in Elizabethtown, new York, were happier times. There, hand developed a life-long friendship with his cousin and future colleague augustus Noble hand, two years his senior. 19 The two were self-confessed "wild boys camping and hiking in the woods and hills, where hand developed a love essays of nature and the countryside. 20 Many years later, when he was in his 70s, hand recorded several songs for the library of Congress that he had summary learned as a boy from civil War veterans in Elizabethtown. 21 After his father's death, he felt more pressure from his mother to excel academically. He finished near the top of his class and was accepted into harvard College. His classmates—who opted for schools such as Williams and Yale —thought it a "stuckup, snobbish school".
22 Harvard edit learned Hand in 1893, the year he graduated from Harvard College hand started at Harvard College in 1889, initially focusing on classical studies and mathematics as advised by his late father. At the end of his sophomore year, however, he changed direction. He embarked on courses in philosophy and economics, studying under the eminent and inspirational philosophers William James, josiah royce and george santayana. 23 At first, hand found Harvard a difficult social environment. He was not selected for any of the social clubs that dominated campus life, and he felt this exclusion keenly.
11 Lydia hand was an involved and protective mother, who had been influenced by a calvinist aunt as a child; and she passed on a strong sense of duty and guilt to her only son. 12 learned Hand eventually came to understand the influences of his parents as formative. 13 After his father's death, he looked to religion to help him cope, writing to his cousin Augustus Noble hand : "If you could imagine one half the comfort my religion has given to me in this terrible loss, you would see that Christ never. 14 Hand was beset by anxieties and self-doubt throughout his life, including night terrors as a child. He later admitted he was "very undecided, always have been—a very insecure person, very fearful; morbidly fearful".
15 Especially after his father's death, he grew up surrounded by doting women—his mother, his aunt, and his sister Lydia (Lily eight years his elder. 16 Hand struggled with his name during his childhood and adulthood, worried that "Billings" and "Learned" were not sufficiently masculine. While working as a lawyer in 1899, he ceased using the name "Billings"—calling it "pompous"—and ultimately took on the nickname "B". 7 17 Hand spent two years at a small primary school before transferring at the age of seven to The Albany Academy, which he attended for the next 10 years. He never enjoyed the Academy's uninspired teaching or its narrow curriculum, which focused on Ancient Greek and Latin, with few courses in English, history, science, or modern languages. Socially, he considered himself an outsider, rarely enjoying recesses or the school's military drills.
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His mother's family traditionally used surnames as given names; and Hand was named for a maternal uncle and a grandfather, both named Billings Peck learned. 4 The hands were william a prominent family with a tradition of activism in the democratic Party. Hand grew up in comfortable circumstances on homework Albany's main residential street. The family had an "almost hereditary" attachment to the legal profession 5 and has been described as "the most distinguished legal family in northern New York". 6 Samuel Hand was an appellate lawyer, 7 who had risen rapidly through the ranks of an Albany-based law firm in the 1860s and, by age 32, was the firm's leading lawyer. In 1878, he became the leader of the appellate bar and argued cases before the new York court of Appeals in "greater number and importance than those argued by any other lawyer in New York during the same period". 8 Samuel Hand was a distant, intimidating figure to his son; learned Hand later described his relations with his father as "not really intimate". 9 Samuel Hand died from cancer when learned was. 10 learned's mother thereafter promoted an idealized memory of her husband's professional success, intellectual abilities, and parental perfection, placing considerable pressure on her son.
His decisions in specialist fields, such as patents, torts, admiralty law, and antitrust law, set lasting standards for craftsmanship and clarity. On constitutional matters, he was both a political progressive and an advocate of judicial restraint. He believed in the protection of free speech and in bold legislation to address writer social and economic problems. He argued, however, that the United States Constitution does not empower courts to overrule the legislation of elected bodies, except in extreme circumstances. Instead, he advocated the "combination of toleration and imagination that to me is the epitome of all good government". 3 Contents Early life edit samuel Hand, learned's father, was a successful lawyer who died at age. Billings learned Hand was born on January 27, 1872, in Albany, new York, the second and last child of Samuel Hand (183386) and Lydia hand (née learned).
appointment. Hand possessed a gift for the English language, and his writings are admired as legal literature. 2, he rose to fame outside the legal profession in 1944 during. World War ii after giving a short address. Central Park that struck a popular chord in its appeal for tolerance. During a period when a hysterical fear of subversion divided the nation, hand was viewed as a liberal defender of civil liberties. A collection of Hand's papers and addresses, published in 1952 as The Spirit of Liberty, sold well and won him new admirers. Even after he criticized the civil-rights activism of the 1950s Warren court, hand retained his popularity. Hand is also remembered as a pioneer of modern approaches to statutory interpretation.
New York city, he was appointed at the age of 37 as a federal District Judge. The profession suited his detached and open-minded temperament, and his decisions gpa soon won him a reputation for craftsmanship and authority. Between 19, under the influence. Herbert Croly 's social theories, hand supported, new Nationalism. He ran unsuccessfully as the. Progressive party 's candidate for, chief Judge of the, new York court of Appeals in 1913, but withdrew from active politics shortly afterwards. Calvin coolidge promoted Hand to the court of Appeals for the second Circuit, which he went on to lead as the senior Circuit Judge (later retitled Chief Judge) from 1939 until his semi-retirement in 1951.
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Billings learned Hand ( /lɜrnɪd lurn-id ; January 27, 1872 August 18, 1961) was an American judge and judicial philosopher. He served on the, united States District court for the. Southern District of New York and later the, united States court of Appeals for the second Circuit. Hand has been"d more often by legal scholars dream and by the. Supreme court of the United States than any other lower-court judge. 1, born and raised in, albany, new York, hand majored in philosophy at, harvard College and graduated with honors from. After a short career as a lawyer in Albany and.