Trench may.5 to 1 m wide, 1.5 m deep and 10 to 20 m long depending upon availability of water to be recharged. These are back filled with boulders (5-20 cm gravels (5-10 mm) and coarse sand (1.5-2 mm) in graded form—boulders at the bottom, gravel in between and coarse sand at the top so that you the silt content that will come with runoff will be deposited. A mesh should be provided at the roof so that leaves or any other solid waste/debris is prevented from entering the trench and a desilting/collection chamber may also be provided on ground to arrest the flow of finer particles to the trench. (iii) roof Top rain Water Harvesting through Existing Tubewells. In areas where the shallow aquifers have dried up and existing tubewells are tapping deeper aquifer, roof top rain water harvesting through existing tubewell can be adopted to recharge the deeper aquifers. Pvc pipes of 10 cm diameter are connected to roof drains to collect rain water. The first roof runoff is let off through the bottom of drain pipe. After closing the bottom pipe, the rain water of subsequent rain showers is taken through a t to an online pvc filter.
The technique is suitable for buildings having a roof area of 100 sq m and is constructed for recharging the shallow aquifers. Recharge pits may be of any shape and size and are generally constructed 1 to 2 m wide and 2 to 3 m deep which are back filled with boulders (5-20 cm gravels (5-10 mm) and coarse sand (1.5-2 mm) in graded form— boulders. Roof top rain water harvesting through recharge essay pit the top of the coarse sand layer and can easily be removed. For smaller roof area, pit may be filled with broken bricks/cobbles. A mesh should be provided at the roof so that leaves or any other solid waste/debris is prevented from entering the pit and a desalting/collection chamber may also be provided at the ground to arrest the flow of finer particles to the recharge pit. The top layer of sand should be cleaned periodically to maintain the recharge rate. By-pass arrangement is provided before the collection chamber to reject the first showers. (ii) roof Top rain Water Harvesting through Recharge Trench :. Recharge trenches are suitable for buildings having roof area of 200-300 sq m and where permeable strata are available at shallow depths.
This water can be recharged to aquifer and can be utilized gainfully at the time of need. The rain water harvesting system needs to be designed in a way that it does not occupy large space for collection and recharge system. Roof top rain water harvesting can be a very effective tool to fight the problem of water shortage particularly in urban areas. Roof top rain water harvesting depends upon the amount of rainfall and the roof top area. More the amount of rainfall more is the harvested water from roof top. Similarly, larger amount of roof top rain water is harvested from roofs with large area. Table.7 gives the amount of harvested water from roof top in cubic metres in relation to the amount of rainfall in millimetres and the roof top area in square metres. A few techniques of roof top rain water harvesting in urban areas are described as under: (i) roof Top rainwater Harvesting through Recharge pit:. In alluvial areas where permeable rocks are exposed on the land surface or at very shallow depth, roof top rain water harvesting can be done through recharge pits.
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It reduces flood hazards. Effects rise in ground water levels. Mitigates effects of drought. The new Delhi-based Centre for Science and Environment estimates that merely capturing the rain resume water and run off on 2 per cent of Indias land area could supply 26 gallons of water per person. As such much effort is to being made to popularize the concept of rain water harvesting at the grass roots level. Potential Areas :.
Where ground water levels are declining on regular basis. Where substantial amount of aquifer has been de-saturated. Where availability of ground water is inadequate in lean months. Where due to rapid urbanization, infiltration of rain water into subsoil has decreased drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished. Methods and Techniques : The methods of ground water recharge mainly are: Urban Areas : roof top rain water/storm runoff harvesting through (i) Recharge pit (ii) Recharge Trench (iii) Tubewell (iv) Recharge well Rural Areas : rain water harvesting through (i) Gully Plug (ii) Contour.
To arrest decline in ground water levels. To enhance availability of ground water at specific place and time and utilize rain water for sustainable development. To increase infiltration of rain water in the subsoil this has decreased drastically in urban areas due to paving of open area. To improve ground water quality by dilution. To increase agriculture production.
To improve ecology of the area by increase in vegetation cover etc. The cost of recharge to sub-surface reservoir is lower than surface reservoirs. The aquifer serves as a distribution system also. No land is wasted for storage purpose and no population displacement is involved. Ground water is not directly exposed to evaporation and pollution. Storing water under ground is environment friendly. It increases the productivity of aquifer.
Rainwater, harvesting for Landscape Use: Central Texas
It is improve the term used to indicate the collection and storage of rain water used for human, animals and plant needs. It involves collection and storage of rain water at surface or in sub-surface aquifer, before it is lost as surface run off. The augmented resource can be harvested in the time of need. Artificial recharge to ground water is a process by which the ground water reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding that under natural conditions of replenishment. The collected water is stored and pumped in a separate pipe distribution. This is a very useful method for a developing country like india in reducing the cost and the demand of treated water and also economising the treatment plants operation, maintenance and distribution costs. To overcome the inadequacy of surface water to meet our demands.
Demand of water for domestic use can papers also be reduced. For example, in most urban areas about.5 litres of water is used in one flushing. In some cities cisterns requiring only 5 to 7 litres of water in one flushing are now used. Thus if each urban individual adopts smaller cisterns, the amount of water consumption for flushing can be reduced to half. Similarly, if raw water is used for cleaning, gardening, etc., a lot of fresh potable water can be saved. Water used in kitchen sink, wash basin and in bathroom can be collected into a tank and reused for flushing toilet and gardening also. Rain Water Harvesting : rain water harvesting is one of the most effective methods of water management and water conservation.
great demand of water in industries and the industrial sector offers great opportunities to conserve water. The economy in water-use in this sector will have two benefits. Firstly, the saved water may be used to meet the demand in other sectors. Secondly, the affluents thrown in the water bodies will be less. Water in most industries is used for cooling purposes, thus, it is not necessary to use fresh potable water. Instead, the recycled water may be used for this purpose. By using the recycled water over and over again, fresh water can be conserved.
In arid areas, wherever water has been brought for irrigation, saline and alkaline tracts have emerged, rendering the soil infertile. Wasteful use of water should be checked. Sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation can play a crucial role in conserving scarce water resources in dry areas. Drip irrigation and sprinkles can save anywhere between 30 to 60 per cent of water. Only.5 per cent—nearly half of this in Maharashtra—is under drip irrigation and. 7 per cent under sprinklers. There is large-scale pollution of water as a result of industrialisation and urbanisation. This trend has got to be checked. Advertisements: Although one-eighth of India is declared as food prone, there are you several thousand villages in India which do not have potable drinking water.
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Advertisements: rain Water Harvesting in India: need, methods and other Details! Water is an important natural resource and is the very basis of our life. We use water for drinking, irrigation, industry, transport and for the production of hydro-electricity. Water is a cyclic add resource which can be used again and again after cleaning. The best way to conserve water is its judicious use. Advertisements: A large quantity of water is used for irrigation and there is an urgent need for proper water management in irrigation sector. Over-irrigation through canals has led to water-logging in western Uttar Pradesh, punjab, haryana and Hirakud command area. Seepage along the canals can be checked by lining them. The overdraft by tube-wells has resulted in lowering of water table in a number of villages in Haryana, punjab and western Uttar Pradesh.